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You maybe haven’t realized it yet but computers have played such an important role in our society. All of our necessities and wants can be located in the internet and can be accessed with the press of a button. But the technology, internet, and computers that we have today aren’t as advanced and progressive as the ones in the years behind. So, today we are going to look onto the computer development that has happened throughout the years and how it impacted the lifestyle of our society that we live in today.History of ComputersThe evolution of computers actually began not with Alan Turing, but with a man named Herman Hollerith. He designed a punch card system to calculate the 1880 census. He accomplished the task in just three years and later established a company that would later be IBM. Then on 1936, an English mathematician named Alan Turing presents the notion of the universal machine, capable of computing basically anything. He and his machine would later be the key to breaking the German Enigma, something that helped the Allies win the World War II. Those two men in my opinion were the ones who drove the idea that modern technology could help fulfill jobs that man could not do. They presented the idea that machines could be the modern allies of mankind. From there on, the computer began evolving and developing. In the year of 1941, J.V Atanasoff and his graduate student designed a computer that can solve 29 questions simultaneously, marking an achievement since it was the first time computers could store information in its main memory. Then, when computers evolved, so did the programming inside of it. Between the year of 1953 and 1954, Grace Hopper invented the computer programming language named COBOL and a team of programmers in IBM developed another computer programming language named FORTRAN. Computers were developing rapidly and suddenly the industry and markets focused at computers were having lots of gain. Before the year of 1974 when hardware and software surrounding computers were still being advanced (such as floppy disks, DRAM chip, C Programming Language, etc), it was rare to see personal computers in homes of the general public. But that all changed between the years of 1974 to 1977. Personal computers were being sold at the general market and many brands and computers started to compete with each other. Various computer brands were also born such as Apple, Microsoft, etc. From there on, many technology pieces were being sold, search engines for the internet were being made, and so on. Discoveries and inventions that were made eventually became the building blocks of our society such as the World Wide Web/domains that was founded in the year of 1985, the term Wi-fi that was founded in the year of 1999 and helped users to connect with each other without wires, operating systems such as the Mac OS X and social networks such as Facebook were also founded. Now in the year of 2018, technology and computers is at its brink of glory and although technology has proved to be dangerous at times in the past, more opportunities and doors for the people in our society.Generations of ComputersThere are five generations of computers. Our journey of the development and advancement of computers began from the year of 1940 to the present day and beyond. 1st Generation: Vacuum Tubes (1940-1956)The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory. These computers could only do basic and simple human jobs but were enormously large to the fact that it could fill up a room! The first generation wasn’t the best to have; it was ridiculously expensive, used a great deal of electricity, and produce large amounts of heat which caused malfunctions and errors. First generation computers relied on the lowest computer programming language and could only solve problems one at a time. Examples of first generation of computers include the UNIVAC and ENIAC.2nd Generation Computers: Transistors (1956 – 1963)Transistors would later replace vacuum tubes and were invented at Bell Labs in 1947 but did not see widespread general use until the late 1950s. The second generation of computers were much better than their predecessors. It was much faster, efficient, smaller, and certainly cheaper. Although the second generation of computers still had many flaws such as overheating (which caused great damage), it was still more relied on rather than the first generation computers. Second generation computers moved from cryptic binary language to the language which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. Programming languages that are vital in the present such as COBOL and FORTRAN were being developed. Lastly, these were the first computers that stored their instructions in memory, which transitioned from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology. Examples of second generation computers include IBM 1401 and Honeywell 400.3rd Generation Computers: Integrated Circuits (1964-1971)The third generation computers were also more advanced and developed than the first or the second generations of computers. Third generation computers were heavily miniaturized and integrated with more technology pieces such as silicon chips, semiconductors, etc. The result of this change of hardware became beneficial for the oncoming progress of development, since it increased the speed and efficiency of computers. Instead of using punched cards and printouts as the main source of input and output (as was used in previous generations), the third generation of computers interacted more with keyboards and monitors, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time. For the first time, computers became accessible to the general mass public and can be found in people’s personal homes. It was much cheaper and convenient than their predecessors. Examples of third generation computers include ICL 2900 and PDP-8.4th Generation Computers: Microprocessors (1971 – Present)The fourth generation of computers were also a big achievement in the development process of computers since thousands of integrated circuits could fit onto one silicon chip. What was once a computer that could fit an entire room can now be accessible and fitted to our palms. Technology evolved so much that all the components of the computer (ranging from memory, input, output, and so on), can be located in one single chip. Fourth generation computers became so powerful since it oversaw the discovery of the internet, Wi-Fi, GUIs, etc. Fourth generation computers was seen as something to be fascinated at that time, since it could link together users and networks and also profit for the technology or computer market.5th Generation Computers: Artificial Intelligence (Present and Beyond)Artificial intelligence is intelligence or knowledge displayed by machines. Although this feature is still in development, it has been known to create dangerous and immoral behaviours and notions in the past. Scientists and influencers such as Stephen Hawking, Bill Gates, Elon Musk has warned people about the dangers that A.I could create and impact to humankind. They have also warned about how machines or A.I could replace the well being of the average human. The goal of fifth generation computing is to develop artificial intelligence that could respond to human language and is capable of learning and self organization. A general example of the fifth generation of computer would be voice recognition.Parts of the ComputersMotherboard – The part of the computer that wires all of the other parts together. The motherboard is a board with printed circuits plastered on it and includes the CPU and memory. Every component in your computer connects directly into the motherboard. Hence why the motherboard is such a vital part of the computer. An additional note is that the specifications of the motherboard rely on which CPU your computer uses.Processor (CPU) – The CPU acts as the brain of your computer. It is responsible for the interpretation of codes that comes from other computer elements. Although it is simply a single chip and looks like it is of unimportance, the processor’s speed determines the overall speed of your computer. Like the motherboard, the CPU is also a vital and key part to making sure that your computer has the best performance. A control unit and the Arithmetic Logic Unit can also be found in the processor.Hard Drive – This component could also be called the hard disk. Essentially, the hard drive stores the computer’s information and is sold at a low cost. Everything you upload to your computer will go to the hard drive. The capacity of the hard drive is measured in megabytes, though some massive computers (like the ones that they use in NASA) store in terabytes. The hard drive sits in the computer’s housing and cannot be removed since it is the resident of your computer. What is helpful about the hard drive is that the data remains intact even after you turn the power off. Housing – The part of the computer that holds all the parts that operates your computer. It is basically the casing that protects the components that functions the computer. The housing can be found in the CPU, monitor, or mouse. An all inclusive computer houses both the monitor and the vital components but doesn’t house the keyboard or mouse.RAM (Memory) – The RAM stands for Random Access Memory and is the part of the computer that acts as the instant memory. It is used as a temporary location to execute instructions from the computer, working storage space for programs, documents, and calculations. Being a thousand times faster than a hard drive space will definitely make it way more expensive. It is faster than the average hard drive space because of millions of tiny transistors that store data as electric charges. Running many programs at once will need the brainware to upgrade its RAM since its using so many memory. There are many versions or configurations of the RAM that runs at higher speed such as DRAM, SRAM, and Dynamic RAM.Optical Drive – The part that writes and read data. The drive that can burn CDs, DVDs, and Blu-Ray discs. The optical drive can be inserted by slot loading, tray loading, and many other various configurations. Optical drives insert directly to the motherboard of the computer. Monitor – A monitor displays the results of the work done by the microprocessor and other components. The monitor is constructed by thousands of small dots called pixels and is arranged in a rectangular shaped grid. The circuits inside the monitor transform the pixels to be able to have a wide range of colors, forming text and graphics that is visible to be seen by the brainware. The monitor can respond very quickly to the activities in the computer, hence why you can see high definition video. Keyboard and Mouse – The two most common input devices are the keyboard and mouse. The two components performs different actions depending on the icons or graphics that the brainware clicks on. A good computer gives an instant respond when you move the pointer of the mouse or type something into the computer. Though it seems that the keyboard and mouse is directly connected to the keyboard and mouse, it is all connected or overseen by the microprocessor. Ethernet CablesAn Ethernet cable is one of the most popular methods or forms of networks cable used on wiring networks. Ethernet cables connect within a local area network or also called as LAN. Examples could be PCs, routers, and switches. Like all physical cables, the Ethernet cable has its limitations. Whether it will be in the distance that it can stretch and is still able to carry proper signals or its durability. There are different types of Ethernet cables that carries out different jobs and functions in particular situations. Different types of Ethernet cables include Category 5 (CAT5), Category 6 (CAT6), and crossover cable. Ethernet cables are physically manufactured in two different ways, solid and stranded. Solid Ethernet cables offer slightly better performance and has more protection against electric interference. Solid Ethernet cables are commonly used in business offices and major corporations. However, stranded Ethernet cables are less prone to physical breaks but is more suitable to bring for travelers or home networking setups.The internal section of the Ethernet cable is color coded with 8 different colors. These wires are twisted into 4 pair of wires, each pair of wires has its own color theme. One wire in the pair would be a solid color and the other wire would be the solid color joined with a white wire. The order goes in this sequence:Orange – WhiteOrange Green – WhiteBlue Blue – WhiteGreenBrown – WhiteBrownThe twists of the wires are extremely important. They are there to counteract noise and interference. The wire has to be arranged and twisted to the appropriate standard to get proper performance for the Ethernet cables.