Wheat is a grass mainly cultivated for
its seeds, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The scientific name
of wheat is genus Tritium. Wheat is most widely grown crop of the world. World
trade of wheat crop is more than all other crops as combined. Wheat is an
important source of carbohydrates.
Harvested wheat grain that enters the trade market is classified based on its
properties. Wheat buyers decide which wheat to buy according to the use and
properties of that specific variety. Wheat is widely grown as a cash crop
because of the good yield results per hectare. Wheat can be used in many ways
to make wheat products. Wheat is mainly used for baking breads. Even breads are
named on the variety of wheat flour which is used to bake that special kind of
breads. For instance, rye and oat breads. Wheat flour is also used to bake
biscuits, rusks, chapati, cakes, cookies, pancakes etc. wheat is also used in
medical line for making medicines. Wheat is also good source of carbohydrates
and used as a food for milk animals like buffalo, cow, goat etc.
Cultivation process: Firstly, plough soil 2-3 times followed by
double planking. Turn soil into very fine texture for good germination of seed.
Make a good seedbed for sowing of wheat seed. After this there are many ways
for sowing of wheat seed into soil.
ü Broadcasting method: This is an old method
used for sowing. In this method sowing is done by manually. Take well cleaned
wheat seed in a bowl or bucket and broadcast it in field. This is not a good
method of sowing because this results in uneven germination of wheat plants.
However, small farmers use this method for sowing.
ü Seed-Drill method: In this method sowing is
done with seed drills which are pushed by tractor. This method is very popular
among farmers nowadays because this gives maximum germination rate as compared
to other methods. This method of sowing is easy as compared to broadcasting
method and farmers usually prefer this method.
ü Zero-drill method: This is the easiest method
of sowing of wheat. In this method there is no need of ploughing and planking
field. Farmers can directly sow wheat in the residual of previous crop. This
method saves time and money. Nowadays, educated farmers started using this
method and this way of sowing is getting popularity worldwide.
wheat has numerous varieties on basis of use and properties.
ü Durum: Very hard, truculent, light color grain
and high in protein.
ü Hard red spring: Hard, brownish and high in
ü Hard wheat Winter: Hard, brownish and mellow
high in protein.
ü Soft red winter: Soft, low protein.
ü Hard white: Hard, light color and medium
ü Soft white: Soft, light color and very low in
Irrigation and Inputs: Wheat is a winter crop. It is recommended to
irrigate wheat crop 2-3 times for one cycle. First irrigation should be given
after three weeks of sowing. Second irrigation should be given after eight
weeks. Last irrigation should be given before two weeks of ripening stage if
needed. Wheat crop mainly requires three nutrients Nitrogen, Phosphorous and
Potassium. 100 kg of urea, 50 kg of Di-Ammonium Phosphate, 25 kg of Potassium
Soleplate is required to meet the recommended dose for wheat crop. However,
other minor nutrients are also recommended in very small amount for good yield
of crop. For example- Calcium, Magnesium, Iron etc.
There are three main stages of wheat crop that is germination stage, leaf
stage, ripening stage. All the three stages are very critical as yield point of
view. If there is any kind of disorder in any stage it will directly affect the
yield of crop. At first two stages color of wheat plant remains green but as
plant moves towards ripening its color start changing into golden-brownish.
Harvesting is the last operation before selling wheat into market. Harvesting
can be done by different methods. In the old times harvesting was done manually
by hands. This is time consuming and costly process. Later, harvesting machines
introduced. Machines make this process very easy and quick. Farmers start using
this technique to harvest wheat crop to save time and money. Harvesting
machines makes this process easy and give good quality of wheat seeds. After
this wheat crop grains are ready to sell in the market.