Week 9This week the reading reflected the views of Edwin Sutherland. Sutherland discussed and analyzed differential association.Sutherland wanted to start a theory that would have similar traits as prior scientific theories. Sutherland noted that those located in affluent areas are often times the opposite of law abiding. Those located in suburban areas and are privileged are lawbreakers but some of them aren’t. His theory is really meant to segregate at the individual level. The way Sutherland went about this was distinguishing between those who become offenders and those who don’t because of law breakers no matter what their class, race, or ethnic background might be. Sutherland believes that one of the most important factors in this theory is the social influences. Sutherland also emphasized how learning experiences could also be demonstrated in a series of ways. Sutherland believes that criminal interaction/behavior is learned when people interact with one another and how that influences them to make the decisions that they do. Sutherland emphasized how differential associations often have the ability to depend on how often the crimes are being committed by the individual, duration, intensity of the crime and an individual becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of the law. The learning process involves the same mechanisms whether a person is learning criminality or conformity. That learning takes place primarily in intimate personal groups and includes not only the techniques of committing a crime but the motives, rationalizations, and attitudes which accompany crime. Akers reevaluated this theory by incorporating more psychological factors as opposed to strictly social factors. Akers disregards the idea that criminal behavior is learned.Do you think criminal behavior is strictly learned behavior?Week 10Control social bond theory. American criminologist Travis Hirschi developed this theory, the Social bond theory is often called social control theory. Social control theory is the belief that socialization and the development of personal relationships are one of the most vital aspects of human development that prevent of from committing crimes or other forms of deviant behaviors.Since many people have formed a lot of relationships between peers, family members or teachers and they have unofficially come to terms with the social expectations we should all abide by, they are unlikely to commit crimes against another person. We know through research that people are unlikely to commit crimes because they usually will form some sort of empathy for the people of their community and they also have a greater understanding of the people around them. Many people have accepted that committing crimes have very negative consequences, one of the consequences that strongly deter others from committing crimes is the idea that they could be sent to prison. This theory is a structure that criminologist use to discuss and explain why an individual would decide that they are going to play a part in criminal behavior. There are four elements to this theory that play a role in why people do not commit crimes Attachment, commitment, involvement, and common values. Earliest kind of attachments that we form is often times with our parents since we have an attachment to these things we learn what to expect from them and we often want to abide to what they want from us.Q: Is this theory valid in your opinion? Why?Week 11Developmental theory is explained in this week’s reading has something that has progressed or changed over a span of time due to societal changes taking place.This chapter talked a lot about social influences and how they often will impact how someone incorporates crime.There are many stages in our lives that help form and shape us into the people that we are today, but we know that one of the most vital stages of our lives is our adolescent stage. We know that since we are all people, we will pass certain stages in our lives that are in order with building us up in our capacities of growth. We know that we do not experience the same stage again because we always go up stages. Another important factor to take into account is how stages are often related to how old we are at that particular time. We tend to gain more knowledge the older we because but we know that this is not always the case for every single person because psychological and biological factors do come into place. We also know that societal factors play a huge role in our stages in life because society will often times tell us that we need to be at this “particular stage” at this particular age. That being said we know how age is one of the biggest factors. The reading explains how development is interment, with qualitatively varying capacities evolving in every single stage.Question: What stage is the least important and why?Week 12:Grand Social Experiment This chapter talked about how mass incarceration has become a grand social experiment that has gone terribly wrong. In order to understand the grand social experiment, you must understand how mass incarceration took place and why. Mass incarceration happened in response to the New Jim Crow moment where the government was putting into place laws to promote minorities from being apart of the prison system. For example, “The New Jim Crow” gave us a greater understanding as to how race, gender, and class affect how someone is prosecuted in the criminal justice system. “The New Jim Crow” gives us a greater understanding of the rebirth of the caste-like systems that began during the late 1900’s. The New Jim Crow laws were laws put in place to oppress primarily black and Hispanic minorities. From multiple studies and statistics, we now know that there were millions of African Americans that were put behind bars because of this caste system. The millions of African Americans that were put into prison were put into prison for primarily nonviolent crimes. Although the crimes that were being committed were vastly non-violent, we saw disproportionate sentencing because of the great powers of the criminal justice system as a whole. The fact that this country was founded by slaves owners and white supremacist and a true prophecy as to why there were and still are major disparities taking place in the criminal justice system. Mass incarceration was meant to continue oppression being demonstrated by using laws and during my research, I attested to modern-day criminal justice and criminology as well. Through research and prior learned knowledge, I know that there are four major ways to the study race, class and gender. We now know that there are quantitative studies, place and era studies; ethnographic studies, and there are also social construction studies.Q: Do you believe the Johnson administration purposely wanted to suppressed minorities?Million Dollar Blocks I also enjoyed this article as Alex did because this article discussed how our government is spending more money to keep individuals in prison as opposed to rehabilitating them so that they do not enter into the prison systems ever again. Instead, the government is essentially preparing these individuals to go back into the prison system by making them more corrupt and not giving them enough resources. One shocking fact was that over 2 million people are currently in prison, this number is upsettingly high. The issue to me is that the United States has the highest form of incarceration. This article is upsetting because that number could be so much lower and we know that the higher the number gets the higher the communities will suffer. I also believe that race has a lot to do with this issue as much as people like to ignore race. Sociologist now know that gender, race class remain to both theory and practice. After many studies that have been done we now know that the punishments of criminology and the jobs in the criminal justice system usually have been about the real and not so real disparities that vary among “criminals” and “non-criminals.” Hypothetically speaking, justifications of crime and criminal authority, disregarding of biased views, have sought tried to come to terms with the major differences. In the area of trying to distinguish the differences universally with every conjectural groundwork has remitted race and class veraciously, and gender covertly. It hasn’t been until very recently where sociologist have been noticing the issue with this way of thinking was not only that there had been a scarce if any, agreement on the effects of these three very vital factors, but far more dampening, people have been trying to distinguish on whether or not taking into consideration these factors even matter. Do race, gender, and class impact how you are treated in the criminal justice system? A smart, brave person would not be afraid to answer the previous question with a strong yes because we know for a fact that those factors will always play a huge role in the criminal justice system, whether we notice it or not. I think this number would be much lower is we came to terms with how much race, class, and socioeconomic status impact your likelihood of going to prison.Q: What are some policies we can put in place to lower incarceration?