Water and a high specific heat, is

Water
is the liquid that descends from the clouds as rain, which also form  streams, lakes, and seas, and is a major
component of all living matter and that when pure is an odorless, tasteless,
very slightly compressible liquid oxide of hydrogen H2O which
appears bluish in thick layers, freezes at 0° C and boils at 100° C, it has a
maximum density at 4° C and a high specific heat, is feebly ionized to H+ and
OH-, it is a poor conductor of electricity and a good solvent. (Merriam
Webster dictionary).

It
is a transparent, odorless, tasteless liquid, a compound of hydrogen and
oxygen, it freezes at 32°F or 0°C and boils at 212°F or 100°C, that in a more
or less impure state constitutes rain, oceans, lakes, rivers, etc. it contains
11.188% hydrogen and 88.812%  oxygen, by
weight.(dictionary.com)

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Water
is a clear, colourless and odourless chemical substance. It is the major component
of lakes, streams and oceans, and the fluids of most living things. Wateris a
good solvent for a wide range of chemical substances. Because of its features
as asolvent and its capacity to transfer particles, it integrates in itself
various impurities that characterise the water quality (Von Sperling, 2007).

1.1.2 WASTEWATER:

Wastewater
means all the effluent from household, commercial establishments and
institutions, hospitals, industries and so on. It also involves stormwater and
urban runoff, agricultural, horticultural and aquaculture effluent. (AQUASTAT
2014, http://www.fao.org/nr/aquastat)

Wastewater,
as written as waste water, is any water that has been terriblyaffected in
quality by anthropogenic influence. Wastewater can originate from a conglomeration
of domestic, commercial industrial, or agricultural activities, surface runoff
or stormwater, and from sewer inflow or infiltration.

Municipal
wastewater (also called sewage) is usually passed in a combined sewer or
sanitary sewer, and treated at a wastewater treatment plant. Treated wastewater
is discharged into receiving water via an effluent pipe. Wastewaters generated
in areas without access to centralized sewer systems rely on on-site wastewater
systems. These typically comprise a septic tank, drain field, and optionally an
on-site treatment unit. The management of wastewater belongs to the overarching
term sanitation, just like the management of human excreta, solid waste and
stormwater (drainage).

1.1.3 WASTEWATER COMPOSITION:

Municipal
wastewater consists mainly of water (99.9%) along with relatively small
concentrations of suspended and dissolved organic and inorganic solids. Some of
the organicsubstances present in sewage include carbohydrates, soaps, lignin,
synthetic detergents, fats,proteins and their decomposition products, as well
as various natural and synthetic organicchemicals from the process industries.
The contribution of each constituent can vary widely (Source: Henzeet al., 2002.)

1.1.4 WASTEWATER PATHOGEN:

Bacterium
in water, referred to as pathogens, is a public health hazard with risk factors
in most part of the earth. Waterborne pathogens can occur in all types of water
sources and are very common in places where large amount of untreated can be
found.( Shannyn Snyder).Hepatitis and Norwalk are viruses commonly found in
wastewater, candida is a common fungus. Bacteria, such as Salmonella causes
food poisoning whereas Vibrio cholerae
is the pathogen which can cause cholera. Parasites such as Cryptosporidium and Schistomsomacausesdiarrhea,
and just about all wastewater pathogens can lead to serious gastrointestinal
illness in addition to other, more specific implications, which is significant
cause of death worldwide. (Source: 2005, Wastewater Pathogens by Michael H.
Gerardi and Mel C. Zimmerman and Rehydration Project: Focus on Diarrhoea,
Dehydration and Rehydration). Loads of pathogen can present in the water that
even looks clear, as raw waste and pollutants are sometimes discharged into
relatively pristine waterways from point and non-point sources. In addition,
60% of shallow wells in U.S. agricultural areas have tested positive for
pesticides, and 21% of groundwater wells exceed the federal allowance for
nitrates. Public pools, lakes and waterparks are also at risk for E. coli and Cryptosporidium pathogens. Although many laws are put in place to
protect the public from waterborne diseases by controlling the amount of
microbial loads allowed in a certain water source, agencies such as the Federal
Water Pollution Control Act, the Clean Water Act and the Safe Drinking Water
Act. It is necessary that everybody is aware of good sanitation habits.  Serious attention to boil water alerts and
not taking in  or swallowing water being
swam in or used by others are important ways of limiting a possibility of
infection. Dumping refuse into only approved receptacles and holding
individuals and entities responsible for unsafe practices, it is possible that
the degradation of U.S. waterways can be slowed, and ideally, reversed. This
reversal can ultimately reduce the overall occurrences of gastrointestinal
illnesses associated with water contamination and may help to prevent
nationwide waterborne health epidemics. (Shannyn Snyder)

1.1.5 Staphlococcus:

Staphylococcus
is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. Under the microscope, they appear round
(cocci), and form in grape-like clusters.

The
Staphylococcus genus consist
at least 40 species. Of these, nine have two subspecies, one has three subspecies,
and one has four subspecies. Most are harmless and reside normally on the skin
and mucous membranes of humans and other organisms. Found worldwide, they are a
small component of soil microbial flora.The Staphylococcus genus belongs to the
family Microcococeae. It consists of
Gram positivebacteria having diameters of 0.5-1.5 ?m and characterized by
individual cocci which dividein more than one plane to form grape-like clusters
(Kloos and Bannerman, 1994; Hayashidaet
al., 2009).

The
staphylococci are non-spore forming facultative anaerobes thatgrow by aerobic
respiration or by fermentation yielding mainly lactic acid, they are species
which are non motile. Most species havea relatively complex nutritional
requirement. However, in general they require an organicsource of nitrogen,
supplied by 5 to 12 essential amino acids, e.g. arginine, valine, and
Bvitamins, including thiamine and nicotinamide (Kloos and Schleifer, 1986;
Wilkinson, 1997).Members of this genus are commonly oxidase-negative and
catalase-positive, this features distinguishes them from the genus
streptococci, which are catalase-negative, and have adifferent cell wall
composition to staphylococci (Wilkinson, 1997).