Utilitarianism on the basis of the amount of

Utilitarianism and Doctrine of utility  

  “An ethical philosophy in which the happiness of the greatest number of
people in the society is considered the greatest good.”

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Basically utilitarianism belongs to capitalist society. There was a
shift from land autocracy to industrialization. According to utilitarianism the
main aim is to provide happiness to the state.

 Life is based upon two things

·       
Happiness

·       
Pain

Pleasure always
preferred over. The principals of utility are

1.  Recognizes the fundamental role of Pain and Pleasure in
human life.

2.
Approves or disapproves of an action on the basis of the amount of pain or
pleasure .

3.Equates
the good with the pleasurable and the evil with pain.

Necessity of utilitarianism

In
1715 to 1885 dynamic change started emerging in uk due to industrial revolution
from agrarian. The landed autocract losts its importance and new class came
into existence . The class of land autocracy lost the importance and industrial
class become dominant. Need of political system to secure the right of the
individual. He believed in happiness and security of the people he purpose equality
and gretest happiness of the people.he had to find philosophy between state and
the changing class structure.

 

Bentham philosophy about
utilitarianism

The
philosopher and jurist Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) was born in Spitalfields,
London, on 15 February 174.

He was the founder of utlitranism he was an English
philosopher and political radical.he says that it should be
for the happiness of greater number of people

   ” The greatest happiness
for the greatest number ”

He
was also interested in law legal system , jurisperdence , equality and
democracy .according to him happiness of the majority of its member in the
standard by which a state should be guide.

There
were three thimgs which effects the Bentham mind American revolution ,
industrial revolution and colonization.

For
Bentham happiness is just pleasure and absence of pain. The value of a
pleasure or pain depends only on its intensity and duration. His philosophy of
utlitranism was equality , equality of women equal representation in political
affairs and equal division of  all rights
.

According
to him a true legislation brings happiness to the people and to create harmony
between public and private interests.

1.     The good of a society is the sum of the
happiness of  individuals in that particular
society.

2.     Molarity purpose is promotion of the good of
society.

3.     A moral principle is ideal if and only if
universal conformity to it would maximize the good of society.

4.     Universal conformity to the principle of UTILITY
would maximize the good of society.

 

Principal of utilitarianism

The
principle of utility states that actions or behaviors are right in so far as
they promote happiness or pleasure, wrong as they
tend to produce unhappiness or pain.

Utilitarianism is one of the most important and influential
moral theories of modern times. Utilitarianism gets its name from the
term “utility,” which in this context does not mean
“useful” but, rather, means pleasure or happiness.

Existence of happiness and absence of pain, removing negative
consequnces from largest number of people, something is good if it does more
good then harm for a lot of people.in utlitranism it is called the greatest happiness
of the people which states the moral action is the one that increses the total
utlity in the world, if the action is moral it increses a lot of happiness in
the world.

. Everyone’s Happiness
Counts Equally

So in Bentham’s time, this principle of equality was
decidedly progressive  It lay behind calls on the government to pass
policies that would benefit all equally, not just the ruling elite. It is also
the reason why utilitarianism is very far removed from any kind of egoism. The
doctrine does not say that you should strive to maximize your own happiness.

Rather, your happiness is just that of one
person and carries no special weight.

We also experience
pleasure when we perform certain intellectual activities, such as reading a
philosophy textbook, playing guitar, or drawing a picture. We sometimes, but
not always, experience pleasure when we do the right thing. Conversely, we
experience pain when these functions are left unfulfilled

 

 

 

 

Advantages of
utilitarianism

“What
is the significance of Utilitarianism? the significance of utilitarianism is
that the best versions of utilitarianism , the truth about morality.

Utilitarians
don’t just focus on their friends or family, or their fellow-citizens. 
They are concerned about distant strangers.  They are concerned about
future generations And all affected includes all sensitive beings, so the
suffering of animals matters too.

 

Principles of hedonism

he
purposed hedonistic calculus theory he drive that everyone wants happiness with
maximum ease abd minimum pain.

that a hedonist believes
that the good life consists solely in the pursuit and experience of pleasure or
happiness. The
principle of hedonism is a timeless principle as it reminds us that we should
strive to achieve happiness whilst avoiding pain.

                                                 Happiness
= pleasure minus pain

 

 Bentham believed that everyone has an equal
right to happiness.

The principle of hedonism (happiness) is very important. Bentham
is careful to balance out pleasure with pain when referring to the quantity of
happiness that we achieve through our actions.

 

IS utilitarianism relevant in 21 century

 I think that
utilitarianism is applicable in the 21st century because it is
the only practical ethical system for governing large groups of people and it
provides us with the most simple, yet powerful, ethical guideline which is to
strive for happiness but only at the same time as minimizing pain. 

Utilitarianism
still stands as one of the ways in which mass mediaworkers can attempt to
gather and disseminate the news in the best and most respectable
way possible, but may be outstripped by more comprehensive processes

 

Criticism

 

-. We should work towards
the greater good and overlook our individual differences. happy all the time,
it will become more likely that no one will end up happy. There is some criticism
regarding utilitanism

·        
His theory is Doubtful theory because it is not practiced the greatest
number  of people may get happiness but
not in greatest number.

·        
Pleasure should be both qualitative and quantitative but bethams
pleasure is only quantitative.

·        
The rights of the individual are less important then the good for
many.

·        
It is difficult to predict consequences.

·        
There is difficulty in defining pleasure.  

·        
There is no security for the minorities.

·        
  It is impractical to say that we should
calculate the morality of each choice.

 

Conclusion

 Utilitarianism brings about more happiness
which is relevant in today’s society. Therefore, Utilitarianism is the
only practical ethical system for governing large groups of people and it
provides us with the powerful, ethical guideline which is to struggle for
happiness but only at the same time as minimizing pain. We should work towards
the greater good and oversee our individual differences and there shall be
balanced happiness and minorities shall be focused equally .This could be put
into action in governments it will always help to satisfy the needs of the
majority which is the best thing a government can hope for in its country.