Travel and Tourism Environment and Activities
Table of Contents
Task 1. 4
LO1 Understand the history
and structure of the travel and tourism sector in the UK.. 4
1.1 Explaining key historical developments in the travel and tourism sector 4
1.2 Explaining the
structure of travel and tourism in the UK.. 5
Task 2. 6
LO2 Understanding the
influence of local and national government and international agencies on the
travel and tourism sector 6
2.1 Analyse the function
of government, government sponsored bodies and international agencies in
travel and tourism.. 6
2.2 Explaining how local
and national economic policy influences the success of travel and tourism
sector in the UK.. 6
2.3 Discussing the
implications of political change on travel and tourism sectors in various
Task 3. 8
LO 3 Understanding the
effects of supply and demand on the travel and tourism sector 8
3.1 Explaining factors
affecting tourism demand in London.. 8
3.2 Explaining how supply
has changed to meet the effects of demand for tourism related products and
services in London.. 8
Task 4. 9
LO4 Understanding the
impacts of tourism.. 9
4.1 Evaluating the main
positive and negative economic, environmental and social impacts of tourism on
London and the surrounding areas. 9
4.2 Explaining strategies
that can be used to minimise the negative tourism impacts while maximising the
positive tourism impacts on London and the surrounding areas. 10
This report is
focused on the travel and tourism of the UK and more particularly of London.
Tourism is a great contributor to the GDP of the UK similar to most other
countries in the world. This report discusses how this sector has evolved around
the world and also in London. This report is also concerned with the factors
affecting tourism in London and how the South England Regional Development
Agency can improve the situation of tourism in London as well as improving the
impact of tourism.
LO1 Understand the history and structure of the
travel and tourism sector in the UK
1.1 Explaining key historical developments in the travel and tourism
word Travel and Tourism Council, 10% of
the global economic output is from travel and tourism. This indicates the
impact that travel and tourism have in the world. In the UK also travel and tourism
contribute a significant portion of the
GDP. The UK has always been a place for tourists and recently it is increasing
The wealthy were
the ones who travelled before industrialisation because they did not lack
leisure time. The poor class was busy toiling day and night in order to feed
themselves. The wealthier class travelled for both business and pleasure. When
industrialisation occurred the lower or poorer class were able to afford to
travel. But, their travelling was restricted to either for religious reasons or
within the country. The travelling or tourism industry was not that much
integrated as it is now before the 50’s. Hotels, Trains, Bus and other aspects
related to travelling were operating independently by themselves. Also,
Industrialisation had created a new social class called the middle class which
liked to travel as well (Hospit,
2017). After long distant travel was made easier
because of first trains and then aeroplanes people started to travel further
distances. Now, travel and tourism are flourishing more than ever.
The industry has
now adopted a system that integrates all the business that relates to travel
and tourism. This is one of the reasons
behind the influx of travel and tourism. Because this integration has helped
people to travel easily. Statistics say that
total of 1184 million tourists travelled
in 2015 (Media.unwto.org,
2018). This data will definitely increase in the
1.2 Explaining the structure of travel and tourism in the UK
tourism structure in the United Kingdom comprises of various components. These
1 Travel and Tourism Structure in the United Kingdom (Self-Creation)
Regulatory Bodies: The job of
regulatory bodies is to oversee the travel and tourism industry. They are
responsible for monitoring other components of the industry. Example of
regulatory bodies in the UK are Civil Aviation Authority, Association of
British Travel Agents, Association of Independent Tour Operators etc.
Distributors: Travel agents are an
example of distributors. Their main job is to communicate information or to
provide service to tourists. Distributors are the ones who are providing the
core service in the industry (Goeldner
and Ritchie, 2012).
Transport: Mode of travel for the
tourists and their luggage is called transport. Bus, Train, Airlines, ships are
good examples of this component.
Public Sector Organisation:
Departments of the Government responsible for the industry. The RDA’s,
Department for cultural media, Department for Transport and Sports are examples
of the public-sector organisations.
Other Industry Players: Any
other body that is involved in this industry are the other players. The body
could be the restaurant chains, the hotel chains, cabs, insurance agencies and
other financial institutions (Maitland,
The travel and tourism in the UK are flourishing because these components in the
sector are working effectively and efficiently. It can be hoped that the UK
will experience an increase in tourists in the future years.
LO2 Understanding the influence of local and
national government and international agencies on the travel and tourism sector
2.1 Analyse the function of government, government-sponsored bodies and international
agencies in travel and tourism
Promotion of the
travel and tourism sector is a must in order to increase tourists and revenue
in a country. The Regional Development Agencies, tour operators, the consortium
for tour operators promote the tourism sector.
and implementation of tourist-friendly
policies are the main responsibility of the Govt. bodies. Co-ordinating all
other bodies that operate in the tourism sector and monitoring the bodies that
are interested in this sector is the function of the Govt. bodies.
agencies are responsible for designing attractive tours to the UK. Promotion of the tourism sector is the main
responsibility of this sector. Also, helping the tourists to visit a
destination is the job of international agencies as well (C. Michael Hall; Diem-Trinh Le-Kl?ahn; Yael
and government-sponsored bodies ensure
the development of proper infrastructure in creating a tourism friendly
environment. Policies that encourage investment in travel and tourism can be
adopted by the government as well. The government
can also invest in the travel and tourism sector to pave the way for the
private sector. Sometimes govt. needs to step in because the private sector is unable to collect the fund
that is required (Airey, 2010).
2.2 Explaining how local and national economic
policy influences the success of travel and tourism sector in the UK
The economy is integrated into our lives and the changes in the economy have
an impact on all the aspects of our
lives. Tourism is no exception to that rule. As tourism is affected by the economy and economic changes are brought about
by economic policies, economic policy does influence the travel and tourism
sector of a country. The economic policies could be either local or national.
Both of the policies affect the T&T industry (Wagner, 2012).
given in the brief says that the price of pound sterling has dropped in
relation to other countries. This situation was brought about by the decision
of the UK to leave the EU. This policy
has had a positive impact in this industry because as pound sterling has been
devalued the price of visiting the UK has been lowered. This will allow people
who were previously unable to afford tours to the UK to visit the country (Smithers, 2018).
Moreover, the government invests in various sectors each year these are also
part of the economic policies of a country. When the government takes on policies like infrastructure development in
relation to tourism it creates a direct impact and increases the number of
tourists (Mason, 2014).
Each year the UK
is visited by many football fans as well if any economic policy positively
affects the football industry then it will indirectly increase tourism as well.
Friendly environment for tourism always entices tourist. The government could
influence the economic policies through this.
2.3 Discussing the implications of political
change on travel and tourism sectors in various countries
“Man is a
political animal,” said Aristotle. This
saying proves that politics is integrated into our lives. Countries are
governed by politics and if the political
situation of a country goes through a phase then all other aspects of that
country will definitely see an impact whether huge or small due to the changes (Wagner, 2012).
politics has to be ensured in order to increase tourism. Without stability in politics, no sector could remain in an expected
situation. Instability in politics is the reason why tourism in the middle east
is not flourishing. Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Libya, Yemen these are all beautiful
countries and in the past, these were the hub of the world even but now look
what has happened here. People are fleeing from these countries. Saudi Arabia,
The UAE and Qatar is seeing tourist because their politics is more stable than
other countries. A vacation or a tour in the European countries are preferred
because these countries are more stable when it comes to politics and even the
government encourages tourism.
Malaysia, Thailand sees a lot of tourists because the government is friendlier
towards tourists and tourism is a large part of their GDP. Iran does not see
many tourists flocking there even though the country is stable is because of
the approach of the government. As a conservative Islamic country, it fails to
attract non-Muslim visitors. Even African and South American countries are deprived
of tourists because of their politics (Maitland, 2016).
So, it can be
said with an ease that politics impacts
travel and tourism greatly.
LO 3 Understanding the effects of supply and
demand on the travel and tourism sector
3.1 Explaining factors affecting tourism demand
If there is a place that can be said to have
shaped our modern lives it would definitely have to be London. The capital of
the largest empire in recent past is a place to visit for numerous reasons.
These reasons are why people want to visit London. They are-
The View: The Palace of West
Minister, The Big Ben, The Themes River, Wembley Stadium are iconic. People
come from all over the world to visit these (Mason, 2014).
Cost: London is a home for all kinds
of people. Like a capital, it can accommodate
pheasants and kings alike. So, people of all incomes come to visit London.
Devaluation of Pound: Due to leaving
the EU pond sterling was devalued and this has actually encouraged people to
visit this great city.
Sports: London is home to the
biggest football clubs in the world. The London derbies are another reason for
people to flock to this great city. In 2016 thousands of German football fans
came to visit London to watch their team play Arsenal FC
Food: London can be called the
global capital and this place has foods from all cultures in the world.
like to visit London for numerous reasons there are reasons for not touring the
city. They could be-
Weather: London is notorious for its
gloomy weather. This type of weather is not ideal for tourism. Tourists prefer
sunny places which are a rare sight for
London (Turner and Witt,
Crime: Crime is a problem in every part
of the world. London is no exception to that rule. Recently racism is on the
rise again and tourist of different ethnicity and religion do not feel it safe.
Overcrowding: London is overcrowded
and the people who don’t like crowds should steer away from London.
Attitude: The Londoners are more
reserved than other places that see tourists. This could make a person feel
like they are not friendly. Even though this is not the case this is a reason
people don’t prefer to visit London.
3.2 Explaining how supply has changed to meet
the effects of demand for tourism-related
products and services in London
directly related to demand. If there is
no demand for a product then there is no reason to supply that product.
Sometimes supply is modified because of the nature of demand for the product.
Price and quality adjust in relation to
the demand (Page and Connell,
If a country
sees and the influx of tourists these tourists demand more food, accommodation
and other recreational services. The increase in demand means that an increase
in the price. This is the reason that in places that are visited by people the
price of goods and services related to that has an increase. If we see the
price of goods and services in London then we can see the effect of demand.
Tourist agencies are being formed in London because of the increase of tourism
as well (Butler, 2015).
The quality of
service is very much focused on bodies
related to tourism because the high quality
of service is demanded in the travel and tourism sector in London. People are
able to plan a vacation to London from the comforts of their homes.
LO4 Understanding the impacts of tourism
4.1 Evaluating the main positive and negative
economic, environmental and social impacts of tourism on London and the
industry has both a positive and a negative impact in London. These impacts are
brought about because tourism means the interaction of many cultures with the
British cultures. These impacts are the following-
Impact on the Economy: Tourism is a major contributor to the GDP of Britain and London
perhaps sees the most number of tourists. Because of tourism the infrastructure
of London has been developed as well. Many hotels are built and these hotels
have created jobs for many people. The roads and transportation system has
greatly improved because of tourists (Wagner, 2012).
Inflation is a negative economic impact due to tourism. If the demand for
tourism rises then the prices of goods related to tourism increases
substantially. This makes a livelihood
for locals very problematic.
Impact on the Environment: The term sustainable tourism refers to tourism that will have a
positive impact in a place. Tourism in London ensures that the environment of
London will be looked after. The Hyde Park
has deer and they are protected because tourists find them attractive. Also,
the highly polluted Thames river of the past is currently being better-taken care of. Moreover, some hotels
term themselves as eco-friendly and also
practice it as well (Walker and
But, the carbon imprint left by these huge crowd definitely takes a
toll on the environment of London. The soil is being heavily polluted by the
plastic waste that is being done by the people. The tourists also leave their
carbon footprints through the vehicle that they travel by.
Impact on Society: More tourists mean that more people of different cultures. This
makes the culture of London unique because it blends these cultures to form a
global culture which has London as its leader. This means that the people of
the UK are accustomed to all the cultures of the world and all the cultures of
the world know about the culture of London and the UK.
ethnic diversity becomes a burden when the locals are unable to get a job. If
they are unsatisfied then their anger and frustrations are taken out on the
outsiders. Sometimes, the original culture of London is overshadowed by other
culture. This creates a tension among the people. If people cluster in an area
and they are not natives then they will start discriminating against the natives.
4.2 Explaining strategies that can be used to
minimise the negative tourism impacts while maximising the positive tourism
impacts on London and the surrounding areas
Every light is
followed by darkness. Tourism like all other things in this world has both
positive and negative impacts. But in order to benefit from tourism, the maximisation of the positive
impacts should be our goal along with the minimisation of the negative impact
should be made aware of their carbon footprint because this will mean that they
will pollute the environment less by conserving water and saving electricity.
When people are aware of what they are doing they mostly try to do the right
thing. Moreover, inflation has become a
problem for London due to tourism. The local authorities are the people that
can solve this problem by enacting rules
and regulations. Regulations to stop artificial shortage created by the
suppliers could be a start. After this regulations and policies could be taken
to ensure that the suppliers are more
benefitted from the deals and this will increase the number of suppliers thus creating
more jobs and tackling inflation (HuffPost,
dissatisfied because of tourists and this makes them conduct hate crimes
towards them. They should be taught that tourists are having a positive impact
in their lives and they are actually involved in creating jobs for them.
security to peoples in the tourism sector means that they will be able to
perform better in their workplace. People should be integrated with tourism if
they want to have the best impact on
tourism. People will be more benefitted if locals are integrated into the
sector. Moreover, tourism could be used as a reason for developing the infrastructure of London.
will ensure that tourism is able to do the most it can for London.
England Regional Development Agency is responsible for tourism in London. The
local government should focus on improving the infrastructure of tourism in
London and also implement policies that minimise the negative effects of tourism. Also, the positive impacts
should be maximised as well. The report focuses on the policies that will aid
in the process. In order to increase the GDP of the UK the travel and tourism
sector can be utilized. This report also talks about the economic, social and
environmental effects that tourism has in
London. The SERDA has a lot to do if they want to achieve a sustainable tourism
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