To summaries, we are unable to
regulate an outcome among self-construal priming and the appearance of
conforming to a self-construal after priming, after looking at the results gained.
Despite the results obtained it was be simple minded to assume independence
interdependence distinction always takes the same form in individuals
behaviour. The study raises new questions about independent and interdependent self-construal’s,
and whether individuals are more dependent on one construal to guide their
behaviour and moral judgments.
are some implications to our study, subsequently affecting our results, and the
validity of the study, such as response bias and missing responses in the
questionnaire. The possibility of participants responding in a way they believe
corresponds to the study producers premise, is an aspect that must be
considered as individuals tend to be reluctant in responding in a ‘negative’
manner. Furthermore, some participants gave missing response, highlighting the
possibility of the study being unrepresentative of the study population. The
research can be further improved by controlling the environment. The study is available online, and
uncontrolled questionnaires may be done in an inattentive manner.
research aimed to ascertain if the use of priming methods, being either
independent or interdependent self-construal contributed in variances in a
persons’ ideals, as well as determining whether a single self-construal was more
dominant throughout priming. The results obtained portrayed no significance,
subsequently we are unable to regulate an outcome among self-construal priming
and appearance of conforming to a self-construal after priming. After
conducting our study, the statistics force us to accept the null hypothesis. The
results of the replication study are not consistent with the results conducted
by Gardner, Gabriel, and Lee (1999).
A chi-square analysis was conducted
for the obligation question and punishment question as these are
categorical. There were no significant
differences in the answers given for Lisa’s obligation to either help or not
help her friend, (1, N = 598) = .302, p =
.583. Additionally, participant responses displayed no significant differences
in the answers specified for whether Lisa should be disciplined for her
actions, (1, N = 598) = 1.16, p =
.281. We are unable to reject the null hypothesis considering the statistics.
to the desirability of Lisa’s behaviour were analysed by using an independent
samples t-test to control if prime type effected ratings of desirability. The
result were t(596) = 1.25, p = .12, displaying that there were no significant
variances between the use of independent or interdependent priming, which is
can be analysed in Figure 2.
repeated measures ANOVA was further directed to observe any connections amid
prime type (independent vs. interdependent) and prime method (story vs. word
search) across all four sets. There was no significant interactions found, F(1,
594) = .336, p = .562.
After the statistics were collected,
a 2 (prime type: independent vs. interdependent) x 2 (prime method: story vs.
word search) analysis of variance was directed to examine the quantity of
interdependent self-construal’s that partakers stated on the twenty values
interaction was F (1,581) = .863, p = .353. This shows that there was no
significance as p < 0.05, and can further be analysed in Figure 1. Results The story primes involved a dilemma in which a general had to choose a warrior to send to the king. There were two options: the independent condition; the general chose an individual best suited. In the interdependent condition, the general chose a family member. The word search consisted of paragraphs describing a trip to the city. The two versions differed only in pronouns: independent (e.g., I, mine) or interdependent (e.g., we, ours). The values inventory (Schwartz, 1992; Triandis et al., 1990), is a social judgment task that measures the extent to which personal norms of helping behaviour were detached duties, these acted as our dependent variables. The social judgment task offered a story in which "Lisa" rejected to give her friend "Amy" directions to an art store as she was busy reading a book. Partakers arbitrated how desirable Lisa's actions were on a 7point scale, and judged whether Lisa was obliged to aid her friend or whether her actions represented a personal choice, and whether Lisa's actions should be punished. The self – inventory presented 56 values, and participants had to specify the degree to which each value signified a managerial prime in their lives. Lastly the subjects were asked to provide twenty self-descriptions (Kuhn & McPartland, 1954) which provided a guidance check for the prime. The responses were coded as independent if they describe a personal quality, and as interdependent if they define a role in an association or social group. A 2X2 between subjects design was used in this study: 2 (prime type: independent vs. interdependent) × 2 (prime method: story vs. word search) using ANOVA. Design and Procedure All subjects received a debriefing sheet , which gave them access to contact numbers had they any concerns or questions. The subjects were given a consent form and information sheet, consisting of the implicit information for the study. The study involved the programme Qualtrics, which is an online advanced data collection site. The participants had to complete either a Sumarian War Lord story or a word search , a values inventory and a self-construal task. Materials Participants were recruited using social media platforms such as Twitter and WhatsApp. There was a total of five hundred and ninety-eight participants, their mean age was 11.06 (SD = 13.31, range = 1-54). The study had applied and received ethics approval before proceeding. Participants Methods In the original study, European-American participants primed with interdependence displayed shifts toward more collectivist social values and judgments that were mediated by corresponding shifts in self-construal. Ninety European-American undergraduates at North-western University were primed with an independent or interdependent story or word search: both types of primes had been established to shift the equilibrium between independent and interdependent self-construal's. Subsequently all contributors completed a values inventor, lastly participants were asked to provide 20 self-descriptions. The study suggest ; situational factors influence the self-construal's individuals activate. Research conducted by Trafimow et al. (1991) presented that reading a story with an independent or interdependent theme amplified theme-consistent self-construal's. Brewer and Gardner (1996) demonstrated an increase in quantity of interdependent self-construal's after participants circled interdependent pronouns in a word-search task. The goal of the present research was to investigate the impact of the independent versus interdependent self-construal's within the individual. Our hypotheses; priming a relatively independent or interdependent self-construal within a culture should create differences in values and social judgments that are usually seen across cultures. Cultural psychology goals can be defined as the intention to improve the understanding of the diversity that is observed across cultures and to remain to pursue the psychological human universals that we hold (Brown, 1991; Triantis, 1994). There is inadequate number of vital responses to the query "Who am I?" (Schweder, Much, Mahapatra, & Park, 1997). Gardner's (1999) study is the original study, we aimed to replicate in the present study. The purpose of the Gardner's (1999) research was to investigate the impact of independent versus interdependent self-construal's within the individual. By holding culture as the independent variable and the dependent variables being the varying self-construal's, some make interpretations regarding the position of self-construal as an informative context for understanding the social world. Introduction The Results contradicts Gardener's (1999) study. The present replication suggests that situational factors do not influence self-construal's individuals activate. The study directed proved to have some limitations, such as response bias and progress could be made by controlling the environment the studies take place in. The aim of the present research was to investigate the impact of the independent versus the interdependent self-construal's within an individual. A study conducted by Gardner (1999) – Self-construal priming reflects cultural variances in judgement emphasised that priming of self-construal's influenced the degree to which subjects recognised individualistic and collectivist values as a result was refereed by self-construal's. A replication of the study was completed by five hundred and ninety-eight participants (a hundred and eighty-seven males and four-hundred and five females), whom were recruited using social media. Participants were instructed to complete either the Sumarian War Lord story or a word search, a values inventory and a self – construal task. A 2X2 between subject's design was employed in this study: 2 (prime type: independent vs. interdependent) × 2 (prime method: story vs. word search) using ANOVA. Abstract