There learned information along with distractor items

There are two types of recall are
free recall and cued recall. Free recall is typically a task that requires an
individual to view a list of items and then attempt to recall as many of them
as possible (Titz & Karbach, 2014). It is considered free recall, because the information does not
have to be recalled in any particular order (Wallner & Bäuml, 2017). Cued recall is where, in order to assist with recalling
information, cues are given. Recall requires individuals to recall learned
information, where recognition provides individuals the learned information
along with distractor items to determine if a previously studied item can be detected
(Mokhtari, Delello, & Reichard,
2015).

Lepp (2015), note free recall is also utilized when it comes to criminal
investigations and an individual calling 911 is asked to “tell everything”. Wilson and Criss (2017), conducted three experiments on retrieval-enhanced suggestibility
(RES). Overall, results showed no effect on the prospect of misinformation
affecting the recall of central items, although the misinformation did affect
the peripheral items. Additionally, those who took the initial cued recall test
had increased misinformation on the second test for peripheral items, then
those who did not take the first test (Mokthari, et al., 2015).

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In the second experiment, 120
undergraduate students watched the same video utilized in Experiment 1. The
results from this experiment demonstrated taking the initial free recall test
increased the account of misinformation in the cued recall test. However,
similar to Experiment 1, the increased misinformation was for peripheral 27
items, not the central items (Mokthari et al., 2015). In the third experiment,
120 students participated, with 60 in either test or no-test condition. The
procedure was similar to Experiment 2 except the distractor video was shortened
to 18 minutes; and both the initial and final tests were free recall, and the
second test time was increased to 25 minutes. In this experiment, incorrect
recall of central items remained low, although those in the initial testing
group increased false recall on the peripheral items after hearing the
misinformation (Mokthari, et al., 2015).

Multiple-choice tests fall into the
area of recognition, as these questions are specifically designed with the
answer given, and able to be retrieved utilizing recollection of cues (Downs et al., 2015). In a study to determine comprehension of text by utilizing
open-ended and multiple-choice questions, Downs et al. (2015) had 41
undergraduate students read a text and then answer questions utilizing either
an open-ended questionnaire or a multiple-choice questionnaire. While it was
noted there were no significant differences in performance between the two
types of questionnaires, they felt there was still research that needed to be
conducted, specifically to examine the relationship between different types of
processing, as this study only focused on one type of processing (Downs et al.,
2015). Stress and Memory Recall Another factor contributing to memory recall is
how it is affected by stress.

 Foster (2015),studied the effects of stress on recall. Prior research has shown
memory is worse when an individual is confronted with a stressful event, so  Foster (2015) conducted research utilizing individuals who had been eyewitnesses
or victims in one of 22 bank robberies in between 1989 and 1990. There were 58
witnesses, 12 men and 46 women. Results of the study revealed the answers were
consistent with what had been reported to the police directly following the
robbery, showing that 29 stresses do not necessarily have a negative impact on
memory recall  (Foster, 2015).

While the study showed that stress
does not necessarily affect memory, it should be noted that Rebold and Sheehan
(2016) did mention that some of the differences in accuracy of scores could be
the result of the different perspectives of each of the witnesses; for example,
where they were located while the robbery was occurring. While the present
study is designed to have subjects watch a video of an event, not participate
in an event that could be stressful; individuals may experience stressors while
watching and it is important to understand how this stress could affect the
outcome of the study. Types of Recall Extensive research has been done,
particularly via psychological investigation of eyewitness testimony, in
forensic situations. Where research seems to be lacking is examining if memory
is more accurate when individuals are allowed to recall events freely, or when
prompted with choices.

Lamberg and Muratori (2012), conducted a study to determine if free recall was better than
cued recall. The study involved three psychology classes at Northwestern
University. The results of the study showed those who just wrote a narrative of
the event omitted more details than those who were given questions to answer (Murdock,
2013). What this study did not take into account was any false information that
could have been introduced on the questionnaires. This study was the closest to
the present study that could be found as it focused on free recall, as well as
forced memory.