Thea careers.a Managersa anda supervisorsa cana becomea accustomeda

Thea causesa
ofa sexuala
harassmenta ata
worka area
quitea complicated,a
anda immerseda
ina socialistica
behavior,a politicala
affairs,a emotional,a
anda mentala
states.a Worka
relationshipsa ata
timesa cana
becomea quitea
intimate,a personal,a
anda strong.a
Thisa closenessa
cana foga
thea boundariesa
whicha area
oftena crossed.a
Employeesa area
relianta ona
eacha othera
fora support,a
anda area
dependenta ona
theira managersa
approvala fora
opportunitiesa anda
thea successa
ofa theira
careers.a Managersa
anda supervisorsa
cana becomea
accustomeda toa
theira powera
ofa authoritya
overa employees.a
Sexuala harassmenta
cana bea
causeda bya
manya lifea
traumasa sucha
asa deatha
ina thea
family,a divorce,a
financiala issues,a
etc.a Therea
area manya
waysa toa
trya toa
helpa witha
thea fighta
againsta sexuala
harassment,a buta
thea mosta
effectivea waya
toa eliminatea
sexuala harassmenta
ina thea
workplacea isa
prevention.

Sexuala harassmenta
isa
defineda
asa
anya
unwanteda
sexuala
attentiona
madea
verballya
ora
physically.a
Ita
isa
alsoa
defineda
asa
behaviora
bya
someonea
highera
ina
powera
toa
someonea
ina
aa
lowera
status.a
Employeesa
area
protecteda
bya
thea
statea
anda
federala
lawsa
ofa
sexuala
harassment.a
Thea
Federala
lawa
solutionsa
fora
workplacea
discriminationa
area
froma
Titlea
VIIa
ofa
thea
Civila
Rightsa
Acta
ofa
1964,a
whicha
appliesa
toa
employersa
whoa
havea
fifteena
ora
morea
employees.a
Employeesa
thata
worksa
fora
smallera
companiesa
mostlya
area
protecteda
bya
statea
lawsa
fora
sexuala
harassmenta
(“Sexuala
Harassmenta
Law”).a
Therea
area
twoa
generala
categoriesa
ofa
sexuala
harassmenta
ina
thea
workplace:a Quida Proa Quoa Harassmenta -a Quida proa quoa meansa “thisa fora that”.a “Quida pro”a behaviora involvesa expressa ora implieda demandsa fora sexuala favorsa ina exchangea fora somea benefita (aa promotion,a aa raise,a aa gooda gradea ora recommendation)a ora toa avoida somea detrimenta (termination,a demotion,a aa failinga grade,a deniala ofa aa fellowship)a ina thea workplacea ora ina thea classroom.a Bya definition,a ita cana onlya bea perpetrateda bya someonea ina aa positiona ofa powera overa another.

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Hostilea Worka Environmenta Harassmenta -a Aa hostilea worka environmenta situationa isa aa demeaninga anda unwelcomea sexuallya relateda behaviora thata isa offensive,a employeea commenta ona anothera employee’sa appearance,a circulatea obscenea pictures,a givea ana employeea sexuala objects,a aska abouta ana employee’sa sexa life,a tella offensivea jokes,a hostilea ora intimidatinga toa thea victim,a buta hasa noa directa connectiona toa anya joba benefits.a Aa hostilea worka environmenta includesa sexuala harassmenta bya ana employeea againsta aa co-employee.a However,a thea annoyinga behaviora createsa ana offensivea workinga environmenta whicha affectsa thea victim’sa abilitya toa continuea workinga (“Sexuala Harassmenta Law”).

Ina 1964,a Titlea VIIa ofa thea Civila Rightsa Acta wasa developeda bya statea legislation,a toa prohibita sexa discriminationa ina thea workinga environment.a Tena yearsa aftera thea developmenta ofa Titlea VII,a thea Supremea Courta dealta witha itsa firsta incident,a Barnesa vs.a Train,a aa sexuala harassmenta case.a Aa womana whoa wasa hireda asa ana administrativea assistanta fileda aa lawsuita againsta hera malea managera througha thea Environmenta Protectiona Agency’sa Equala Opportunitiesa Divisiona becausea shea dida nota havea sexuala relationsa witha him.a Unfortunatelya thea districta courta dismisseda thisa case.a Thea districta courta wasa undera thea impressiona thata evena thougha Barnesa wasa treateda unfairly,a thea discriminationa wasa nota becausea shea wasa aa woman,a ita wasa becausea shea refuseda toa havea sexuala relationsa witha hera manager.

Anothera casea helda undera thea developeda Titlea VIIa wasa Cornea vs.a Bauscha &a Lomba Inc.a Ina thisa matter,a therea werea twoa womena whoa quita theira positionsa soa theira malea supervisorsa woulda stopa tryinga toa engagea ina sexuala actionsa witha botha ofa them.a Theya botha sueda theira supervisorsa fora sexuala harassment.a Again,a unfortunately,a thea districta courta ina Arizonaa dismisseda thisa becausea theya believeda sexuala harassmenta occurreda ina mosta environmentsa likea thata anda dida nota wanta toa singlea anyonea ofa thema out.a Thea districta courta felta ita woulda nota bea faira fora thea mena whoa hada beena victimsa ofa sexuala harassmenta asa well.a Undera thesea circumstances,a thea districta courta onlya recognizesa sexuala harassmenta whena ana employera avoidsa sucha chargesa duea toa thea facta thata employeesa area againsta thisa kinda ofa harassment.a Thus,a thesea casesa provea thata thea courtsa havea aa narrowa interpretationa ofa “sexa discrimination”a anda viewsa inappropriatea sexuala conducta ina thea workplacea asa ana issuea toa bea decideda undera criminala law.a Thea courta believesa thata sexuala harassmenta isa nota sexa discriminationa becausea ita provesa thata discriminationa wasa baseda ona thea willingnessa ora non-willingnessa toa engagea ina sexuala activitya rathera thana gender.

Anothera famousa case,a whicha hada aa stronga impacta ona today’sa society,a wasa Hilla vs.a Thomas.a Ina 1992,a Anitaa Hilla sueda Clarencea Thomas,a aa well-respecteda politician,a fora sexuala harassment.a Thea courta ruleda ina favora ofa Thomasa becausea theya believeda thata hera argumenta wasn’ta stronga enough.a Asa aa resulta ofa this,a Anitaa Hilla begana aa feminista movementa ranginga froma collegea campusesa toa thea U.S.a Navy.a Shea alsoa encourageda womena toa runa fora politicala office,a inspiringa academica scholarshipsa anda debate.a Shea hasa awakeneda manya peoplea toa thea injurya ofa sexuala harassmenta conflictsa (Caggiano,a 111-114).

Thea ratea ofa sexuala harassmenta increaseda dramaticallya ina recenta years.a Mosta respondentsa thinka thata sexuala harassmenta isa aa majora problem.a Nota surprisingly,a 82%a ofa womena anda 43%a ofa mena recognizea thisa problema ina oura society.a Onlya 42%a categorizea ita asa aa minora problem.a Duringa 1987,a aa spokesmana whoa worksa ina thea Equala Employmenta Opportunitya Commissiona Companya realizeda thata thea agency’sa limiteda statisticsa ona thea numbera ofa claimsa fileda werea nota published.a Ata thisa time,a thea agencya begana toa collecta anda recorda thisa data.a Thea numbera ofa claimsa fileda sincea thata yeara hasa beena unbelievable.a Therea werea 6,000a describeda casesa ina 1988.a Ina 1989a therea werea 6,200a casesa anda thea casesa havea slowlya beena risinga yearly.a Bya 2003,a 65%a ofa femalesa anda 19%a ofa malesa admitteda toa feelinga somea forma ofa sexuala harassment.a Manya peoplea thinka thata sexuala harassmenta isa ana expressiona ofa sexuality.a Buta mosta expertsa seea ita asa aa reflectiona ofa inadequatea distributiona ofa powera ina thea company.a Definitely,a mosta victimsa area womena ina lowera positions.a Asa morea victimsa ofa harassmenta havea gonea public,a thea damagea thea practicea hasa ona peoplea witha repeatedlya quittinga theira jobs,a switchinga careers,a changinga majors,a ora evena droppinga outa ofa college.a Sexualitya isa emotional,a nota rational.a Ita maya bea ana importanta qualitya ofa life;a howevera ita isa seena asa aa littlea importancea ata worka whena examineda againsta thea mattersa ofa governmenta anda education.a Fora thisa reason,a mosta biologists,a philosophers,a anda theologiansa havea aa differenta notiona pertaininga toa thea issuea ofa sexuala harassmenta duea toa theira professionala standpoints.a Indeeda thea worka worlda isa continuouslya dominateda bya men;a manya womena area stilla lookinga overa theira shouldersa worryinga whethera theya havea establisheda theira professionala worth.a Sexuala harassmenta surveysa demonstratea thata mena viewa sexuala advancesa asa aa minora problema ina theira worka environmenta buta womena considera ita asa aa majora problem.a Whatevera thea casea maya be,a ina ordera fora sexuala harassmenta toa bea controlleda ina thea workplacea preventiona musta starta occurring.

Ina ordera toa avoida sexuala harassmenta froma happening,a ita isa bettera toa preventa beforea ita happens.a Amonga alla thea waysa toa avoida sexuala harassment,a preventiona isa thea besta tool.a Preventiona waysa sucha asa codea ofa practicea ina whicha thea employers
are aencourageda bya thea Ministrya ofa Humana Resourcea adopta thea Codea ofa Practicea againsta sexuala harassmenta anda ana internala mechanisma toa preventa sexuala harassmenta ata thea workplace.a Firmsa shoulda conducta traininga sessiona fora employees,a supervisors,a anda managers.a Thisa sessiona shoulda teacha whata sexuala harassmenta is,a demonstratea thata employeesa havea aa righta toa aa workplacea freea ofa sexuala harassment,a examinea theira complainta method,a anda stimulatea employeesa toa usea it.a Thea employersa shoulda takea alla thea complaintsa seriously.a Ifa someonea complaintsa abouta sexuala harassment,a immediatea actiona toa investigatea thea complaintsa shoulda occur.

Ita isa essentiala thata employersa havea ina placea accessiblea anda effectivea policiesa anda proceduresa toa deala witha sexuala harassmenta anda harassment.a Thesea measuresa shoulda bea agreeda bya thea employersa witha thea relevanta tradea uniona ora employeea representatives.a Ina soa fara asa practicable,a clients,a customersa anda businessa contactsa shoulda alsoa bea consulted.a Aa policya ona sexuala harassmenta anda harassmenta ata worka isa ana integrala parta ofa equala opportunitiesa strategiesa ina thea workplace.a Sucha policiesa willa bea morea effectivea whena operateda ina conjunctiona witha similara policiesa ona equala opportunitiesa anda healtha anda safety.a Thea Employmenta Equalitya Acta protectsa employeesa froma employmenta relateda sexuala harassmenta anda harassment.a Therea area differenta definitionsa anda provisionsa ina thea EEa Act.a Ita distinguishesa betweena sexuala harassmenta (ona thea gendera ground)a anda harassmenta thata isa baseda ona onea ofa thea othera groundsa (“Codea ofa Practice”).

Ita isa necessarya fora employersa ina worka placea asa wella asa othera responsiblea peoplea ora institutionsa toa observea certaina guidelinesa toa ensurea thea preventiona ofa sexuala harassmenta ofa womena ora men,a asa toa livea witha dignitya isa aa humana righta guaranteea bya oura constitution.a Thougha ita happens,a wea shoulda analyzea anda detecta thea problema anda finda thea besta possiblea solutiona toa handlea thea sexuala harassment.a Bya doinga this,a thea harassera willa geta thea deserveda punishmenta froma thea law.a Ina manya casesa victimsa ofa sexuala harassmenta havea losta jobs,a beena suspended,a anda rejecteda toa participate.a Womena area thea maina victimsa ofa sexuala harassmenta ina today’sa world.

Ina recenta years,a sexuala harassmenta hasa beena onea ofa thea mosta seriousa anda widespreada problemsa founda ina thea workplace.a Fora thisa reason,a thea Universala Declarationa ofa Humana Rightsa proclaimed,a bya thea Uniteda Nationsa ina 1948,a toa helpa everyonea ina theira fighta fora self-respecta anda dignitya (Universala Declaration).a Indeeda sexuala harassmenta isa ana issuea thata complicatesa employmenta decisions.a Peoplea alsoa recognizea thata ita isa ana issuea involvinga thea creationa ofa ana antagonistica ora offensivea worka environment.a Ina manya instances,a thea issuea ofa sexuala harassmenta isa nota somethinga minora thata cana bea easilya solved.

Sexuala harassment,a ina mosta cases,a involvesa aa superior’sa behaviora towardsa aa subordinate.a Asa mentioneda before,a mosta formsa ofa sexuala harassmenta occura ina thea workplace.a Ana employeea cana chargea ana employera witha sexuala harassmenta asa aa resulta ofa thea misconducta ofa managers,a fellowa employees,a vendors,a anda customers.a Eventually,a thisa cana causea aa hostilea worka environment.

Effectsa ofa sexuala harassmenta ona organizations:

Decreaseda productivitya anda increaseda teama conflict
Decreasea ina successa ata meetinga financiala goalsa (becausea ofa teama conflict)
Decreaseda joba satisfaction
Lossa ofa staffa anda expertisea froma resignationsa toa avoida harassmenta ora resignations/firingsa ofa allegeda harassers;a lossa ofa studentsa whoa leavea schoola toa avoida harassment
Decreaseda productivitya and/ora increaseda absenteeisma bya staffa ora studentsa experiencinga harassment
Increaseda healtha carea costsa anda sicka paya costsa becausea ofa thea healtha consequencesa ofa harassment
Thea knowledgea thata harassmenta isa permitteda cana underminea ethicala standardsa anda disciplinea ina thea organizationa ina general,a asa staffa and/ora studentsa losea respecta for,a anda trusta in,a theira seniorsa whoa indulgea in,a ora turna aa blinda eyea to,a sexuala harassment
Ifa thea problema isa ignored,a aa company’sa ora school’sa imagea cana suffer
Legala costsa ifa thea problema isa ignoreda anda complainantsa takea thea issuea toa court.

Commona professional,a academic,a financial,a anda sociala effectsa ofa sexuala harassmenta ona victims:

Decreaseda worka performance;a increaseda absenteeism
Lossa ofa joba ora career,a lossa ofa income
Havinga one’sa personala lifea offereda upa fora publica scrutinya –a thea victima becomesa thea “accused,”a anda hisa ora hera dress,a lifestyle,a anda privatea lifea willa oftena comea undera attack.a (Note:a thisa rarelya occursa fora thea perpetrator.)
Beinga objectifieda anda humiliateda bya scrutinya anda gossip
Becominga publiclya sexualizeda (i.e.a groupsa ofa peoplea “evaluate”a thea victima toa establisha ifa hea ora shea isa “worth”a thea sexuala attentiona ora thea riska toa thea harasser’sa career)
Defamationa ofa charactera anda reputation
Lossa ofa trusta ina environmentsa similara toa wherea thea harassmenta occurred
Lossa ofa trusta ina thea typesa ofa peoplea thata occupya similara positionsa asa thea harassera ora hisa ora hera colleagues
Extremea stressa upona relationshipsa witha significanta others,a sometimesa resultinga ina divorce;a extremea stressa ona peera relationships,a ora relationshipsa witha colleagues
Weakeninga ofa supporta network,a ora beinga ostracizeda froma professionala ora academica circlesa (friends,a colleagues,a ora familya maya distancea themselvesa froma thea victim,a ora shuna hima ora hera altogether)
Havinga toa relocatea toa anothera city,a anothera job,a ora anothera school
Lossa ofa references/recommendationsa (“Sexuala Harassmenta Facts”).

Therea area manya waysa toa stopa sexuala harassmenta froma occurringa asa mucha ina thea workplace.a Preventiona musta occura anda remaina topa prioritya ina assuringa thata thisa happensa effectively.