The contaminated soil) down to much stronger and

The standard type of
foundation that is most commonly used to support a steel portal frame building
is a pad foundation. These are constructed with concrete and reinforced with
steel rebar, they are usually in a cube shape with a simple design. However,
this type of foundation isn’t suitable with the soil at the Rutherford Way site
as they are simple not deep enough and don’t allow for variations in the soil.

Another type of
foundation that could possibly be used for this development is a raft
foundation, this type of substructure is very effective at spreading the load
of the superstructure around the larger base of the foundations to reduce the
load per unit area being imposed on the soil making it suitable to use with low
bearing soils. This is constructed of a reinforced concrete raft which is
simple in design and also simple in construction. However, this form of
substructure tends to be wasteful in the amount of concrete used in its
construction and isn’t used often for a portal frame building but for buildings
with masonry load bearing block or brick walls which the new proposal won’t use
but would be a suitable foundation to use if selected.

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As the site has contaminated soil up to 8m a form of piles
would be the most suitable form of substructure to use to support the load of
the superstructure and other loads. After remediation of the soil it is still
possible for some of the soil to not be able to take the loads of the
foundations this then limits the types of foundations you can use in your
development. Piles are foundations which can effectively transfer the loads of
the steel portal frames and other loads through the weak (previously
contaminated soil) down to much stronger and stable soils capable of supporting
such loads without failure.  

A form of pile
foundation is replacement piles also known as bored piles these are constructed
by a hole being bored into the ground to the required depth, then the void made
being with either reinforcement of insitu concrete. This type of pile does what
it says in the name the pile will replace the soil it is in. replacement
foundations are typically used in cohesive soils and when the site is located
close to other buildings as displacement piles, may move the neighbouring
foundations causing them problems. However, on the Rutherford Way site this is
not necessary as no buildings are too close, making other methods of
foundations more suitable.

For the substructure of the steel portal frame buildings I
believe the best option would be displacement piles. This foundation type will
use long columns driving into the ground to transmit the loads of the structure
to a lower level of subsoil 8m deep that wouldn’t have previously been
contaminated. This foundation works by being driven into the ground displacing
subsoil through which it passes. This is one of the more cost-efficient forms
of piles as the process of construction is quite simple with basically a crane
dropping a weight onto the pile column forcing it to go down into the soil, this
process is repeated until the pile has been driven into desired depth or cannot
go any further into the soil. The piles will then disrepute the loads into the
ground. The actual column of the pile will usually be made from concrete with
some form of steel reinforcement inside for added strength. The piles can then
be joined above ground using concrete beam or pads placed above this then
allows the structure to sit on top of the foundations.