The parts, the cerebral cortex, which is the

The body cannot
function properly without the central nervous system. One of the two main
factors of the central nervous system is the brain. The brain has a major part
in controlling daily life activities. It receives messages from the nerves in
the peripheral nervous system and sends out responses as a way to tell the body
what to do and when to do it. The brain is divided into three main parts. Those
parts are the midbrain, forebrain, and hindbrain. Each of these parts contains
certain smaller parts that make up the brain.

            While the brain is separated into three parts, the
cerebral cortex, which is the largest part of the brain, is divided into four
lobes: the parietal, frontal, occipital, and temporal lobes. The front lobe is
the front part of the brain that associates with the cognitive stability in a
human, for example memory, speech, reasoning, emotions, languages, and
behavior. The parietal lobe is near the center of the brain, just behind the
frontal lobe. This lobe contains the ‘primary sensory area’, where messages
pertaining to the senses, recognition, and orientation are interpreted. The
occipital lobe is the back part of the brain behind the parietal lobe and
temporal lobe. The occipital lobe is associated with visual process and
interpretation, also known as the primary visual cortex. The last lobe, the
temporal lobe, sits beneath the frontal and parietal lobes and in front of the
occipital lobes. It perceives auditory information, speech, and language,
recognition, and memory. Damage to any of these four lobes could lead to
difficulty in processing any of each of their functions.

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            Right below the brain is the brainstem. The brainstem
connects the cerebrum and spinal cord. Motor control signals being processed
from the brain are coordinated by the brainstem. It contains the medulla
oblongata, midbrain, and pons varolii. The medulla oblongata is the neuronal
mass in the hindbrain that controls consciousness, heartbeat rate, digesting, respiration,
and circulation. It also aids in the transfer of messages from the brain to the
spinal cord and thalamus. The midbrain, also called the mesencephalon, is
located between the forebrain and hindbrain. It controls the movement of the
head and eyeballs, auditory processing, and auditory and visual stimuli. The
pons varolii is located between the midbrain and medulla, serving as a
connection, or ‘bridge’, for other brain parts. This helps with respiration and
controls the muscles of the mouth along with facial expressions.

The
diencephalon is one of the two major parts of the forebrain. It maintains
homeostasis and relays info between brain regions. The diencephalon consists of
the hypothalamus and thalamus, along with the subthalamus. The hypothalamus is
the inferior section of the diencephalon. It controls the functions pertaining
to the release of hormones along with the connection between the structures in
the nervous and endocrine systems. The thalamus is a mass of grey matter,
divided into two parts, stationed right under the cerebral cortex. It connects
areas that cover sensory and movement perception with similar parts of the
brain and spinal cord. It also has a role in sending signals to the brain that
controls the states of consciousness.

            The cerebellum is the second largest portion of the
brain, although relatively small, behind the top of the brain stem. This part
of the brain is responsible for maintain body posture and balance, regulating
bodily movements and coordination, and transmitting electrical signals to the
brain as information. Because of this, slower movements, tremors, lack of
balance, and maybe paralysis may result as to if the cerebellum were damaged.
According to research, the cerebellum was believed by scientists to be an older
part of the brain developed before the time of us humans. In other words, it
could have been used by the animals, specifically ‘dinosaurs’, which lived in
the Mesolithic Age, when humans had yet to exist.