The New Deal was a specific set of government works programs put into effect by President Roosevelt in response to the Great Depression. The New Deal took action to bring fast economic relief as well as improvements in industry, finance, agriculture, housing, the labor force, etc. The traditional American policy of laissez-faire was opposed in the new democratic promise of the “New Deal”. The majority of the New Deal was enacted in the first couple months of FDR’s presidency, which later became known as the Hundred Days. The first objective was to lessen the hardship of the large amount of unemployed workers in the nation. The Works Progress Administration(WPA) and Civilian Conservation Corps(CCC) were created to establish short term government aid to temporary jobs. The National Recovery Administration (NRA) was created to develop rules to govern trade practices, hours, child labor, wages, and collective bargaining. Also, the New Deal worked to avoid another stock market crash and bank failures.The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) gave insurance for bank deposits and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) was created to protect the people from stock-market companies committing fraud. An agricultural program , the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) attempted to raise prices by providing subsidies to farmers to reduce crop production. The New Deal was filled with government works programs to help pull the country out of the Great Depression but, it also came with its flaws. The Great Exception, written by Jefferson Cowie, is an argumentative book that states Cowies personal arguments about the New Deal as a whole. Cowie begins by stating that the New Deal marks what some may call the “great exception” By this he means that during this period, the New Deal was something like no other. This substantial but, brief moment changed American History as a whole. The New Deal began in the 1940s and returned back in the 1970’s. With it, it brought improved economic equality, an increase in union density,increase of working peoples wages, and the of wealth owned by the hierarchies dipped. Although the new deal worked for a short period of time, it was unsustainable. Cowie explains that the New Deal is divided into four points in order to increase comprehension of the confusing legislative path that followed. The “first” New Deal, occurred between 1933 and 1935, and the majority of it included experimental policies and programs but, eventually ended in failure. The second phase, called the “second” New Deal, occurred between 1935 and 1938, and it was during this period of time that the more defined programs and policies came about. In 1938, the New Deal entered its third phase when political “retreat and retrenchment” was happening. This was as a result of the start of World War II, which threatened to bring to an interruption to the rise of the welfare state. The last phase of the New Deal occurred after the second World War, where government control of economics and employment became accepted. Cowie argues that the New Deal provides “a more stable intellectual foundation for discussions of present and future politics.”(228).The programs and policies created by the New Deal can be described as “extensive federal social and increased regulation of the economy.”(97) which included Social Security, fair labor standards, collective bargaining, the WPA, the Wagner Act,the Fair Labor Standards Act, the Tennessee Valley Authority Act, and many other smaller programs or programs that fell underneath one of the larger aforementioned ones. Although the New Deal as a whole is viewed as a response to the Great Depression, with many of the programs focused around getting the country back on its feet economically. However, many of the policies and programs included in the New Deal were in the works well before the economic crash. President Roosevelt and his advisors must have agreed that some programs “never would have found traction within American politics without the massive structural crisis of the Great Depression or the subsequent wartime emergency”(19). In my personal opinion I agree with the majority of Cowies arguments. Cowie argues that the New Deal political order should be thought of as a political outlier. The New Deal “gave the illusion of permanence” (10) and brought with it many positive aspects. Were there downsides to the New Deal? Yes, with all pros there are cons. The New Deal upset the Federal budget profusely, created huge deficits, and failed to end massive unemployment. FDR’s New Deal called for large government spending to provoke the failing economy.Although the New Deal gave great amounts of hope to people nationwide its programs of relief and reform did little to end the Great Depression. With this in mind, the programs created during the New Deal, are still around today and they provided a platform to an eventual better economy. FDR created a short term fix to the Depression however the ultimate thing that saved America was the joining in on World War II. With Americans in the war it created thousands of jobs manufacturing weapons, and it also freed up jobs for the people who weren’t drafted to fight in the war. Did the New Deal do some good for America? YEs, but it was a time of no other that couldn’t be repeated.Overall, the New Deal was much more significant than a “brief moment” in US history. It was exceptional because the country’s economic equality, union density,and working people’s income improve. Along with that, the percent of wealth owned by the most affluent dips and conservatism and individualism makes a return. Many of the programs created by the original New Deal are still in effect today, such as the Social Security Act, the Tennessee Valley Authority Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), the Federal Housing Administration, and the Securities and Exchange Commission. These programs ‘represent the best of what the United States can be as a nation”(228). Cowie argues that although the New Deal was this “great exception” it worked for a while but overall it was unstable. Although the New Deal was a “positive but unstable experiment”, it created many programs vital to our country today, and is used by many “as a model for our own time”(15).