The Humility in general has been categorized

The general construct of humility has a rich background in theology and philosophy. Because humility often entails the recognition and appreciation of knowledge and guidance beyond the self, it is a foundational principle in all major world religions such as: Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, etc. Humility is also central to many philosophical discussions of morality. Immanuel Kant, for example, viewed humility as a “meta-attitude which constitutes the moral agent’s proper perspective on himself” and a virtue foundational to most other virtues (Grenberg 2005, p. 133). Humility in general has been categorized as a temperance virtue that guards against excess (Park and Peterson 2003).Although the virtue of humility has rich historical roots, conceptualizations of humility vary significantly across philosophical, theological, and psychological perspectives. These differing conceptualizations have made it difficult to derive consensus about the definition of humility. Furthermore, attempts to assimilate different conceptualizations of humility from these fields has led to complex definitions that, in some cases, contain up to 13 different dimensions (Vera and Rodriguez-Lopez 2004), making humility an unwieldy construct to operationalize.One possible reason why previous definitions of humility are so complex is that humility may have different forms or types. Some components of past humility definitions have a clear intrapersonal, internal, and personal focus (i.e., balanced processing of personal strengths and weaknesses; see Owens 2011); other definitions capture the manifested, external, expressed, or interpersonal properties of humility (i.e., displaying a penchant to seek to learn from others; see Vera and Rodriguez-Lopez 2004). Given the conceptual and operational implications for these differences, it is not surprising that past definitions of humility have been confusing and past attempts to measure humility unsuccessful. Because our purpose is to examine humility in the context of organizations, which is considered to generally be a rich social context, we focus our attention on the expressed, interpersonal nature of humility.