The 68.5 ± 69.48 CFU/ml while the mean

The
presence of Enterobacteriaceae is
often considered to be an indicator of quality for processed foods, especially
with regard to good manufacturing and processing practices. Enterobacteriaceae are usually found in
either humid or dry environments and are good indicators of the contamination
of equipment caused by environmental sources. (Zink 1995) Members of the Enterobacteriaceae family are sensitive
to thermal treatments and sanitizers, and needs to be monitored in food
environments. The existence of Enterobacteriaceae
in post hygienic procedures can give attention to the inefficacy of hygiene
procedures. (Ferraz et al., 2010)

Then
mean Enterobacteriaceae count for
organic milk was 68.5 ± 69.48 CFU/ml while the mean Enterobacteriaceae count for conventional milk was 78.85 ± 61.76
CFU/ml. There was no significant difference noted between the Enterobacteriaceae count of organic and
conventional milk as p>0.05 at 0.565626937. The mean value of Enterobacteriaceae was somewhat higher
in conventional milk. In another study carried out by Ferraz et al., (2010) there was also no
significant difference found between the two productions systems as p>0.05.The
presence of Coliforms in foods of animal origin indicates environmental sources
of contamination as these microorganisms are plentiful in the environment. Testing
for coliforms in milk helps to identify milk samples that may have been exposed
to unsanitary conditions. The existence of coliforms indicates faecal
contamination as well as environmental contaminants. Coliforms are amongst the
numerous groups of microorganisms that are frequently present in raw milk. (Martin
et al., 2016) A study which was
conducted in the U.S. in 2002 with bulk tank milk samples showed that 96% of
the samples tested were coliform positive. (Van
Kessel et al., 2004). High levels of coliforms in raw milk
can specify unhygienic practices on the far or insufficient refrigeration.
(Martin et al., 2016)

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Violet
red bile agar was used to enumerate coliforms in this particular experiment.
The mean total coliform count for organic milk was 54.75 ± 42.21 CFU/ml while
the mean total coliform count for conventional milk was 61.89 ± 59.31 CFU/ml. There
was a higher total coliform count in conventional milk, however, there was no
significant difference observed between the two types of milk as p>0.05 at
0.176210605. On the contrary, a study carried out by Kou?imsKá et al., (2014) found a higher percentage of positive coliform
bacteria in organic milk samples. They found 46.1% total positive coliforms in
organic milk and 37.4% total positive coliforms in conventional milk with p
<0.05 at 0.014, meaning there was a significant difference.  Coli ID medium was also used to enumerate total coliforms and E.coli in both raw organic and conventional milk. Coli ID medium is a commercially available medium used for recovering E.coli and other coliform organisms from food products at 37oC. It is a selective chromogenic medium which contains two chromogenic substrates which allow the direct recognition of coliforms and identification of E.coli, without the use of additional reagents.  The rose/pink colonies which grow are E.coli and the blue/green colonies are recognised as coliforms as seen in figure 4.9 and figure 4.10. (Dls web, 2017) E.coli is known as one of the most common contaminants of raw milk. Similar to total coliforms it is a reliable indicator of faecal contamination of water and foods such as milk and dairy products. High levels of E.coli in raw milk can also indicate low levels of milk hygiene and quality. (Mhone et al., 2011) The mean total coliforms enumerated on Coli ID medium for organic milk was 18.89 ± 24.84 CFU/ml while the mean for conventional milk was 42.75 ± 43.13 CFU/ml. There was a higher mean of total coliforms found in conventional milk, however there was no apparent significant difference between the two types of milk as p>0.05 at 0.055726017. The mean
of E.coli enumerated on Coli ID
medium for organic milk was 20.35 ± 26.57 CFU/ml while the mean E.coli for conventional milk was 15.15 ±
11.90 CFU/ml. The organic milk had a slightly higher mean of E.coli , however there was no
significant difference between the two samples as p > 0.05 at 0.429453713.

The overall mean results
of each bacteria tested on organic and conventional milk can be seen below in figure 4.11. Hygienically inferior environmental
conditions such as shortcomings in daily cleaning and disinfection of all
milking equipment are commonly the main reason for poor microbial quality of
milk. Somatic cell count is another parameter which identifies farm hygiene. A
study carried out by Kou?imsKá  et al.,
(2014) concluded that there was no statistically significant difference in the
somatic cell count between the organic and conventional dairy farms.

 Coli
ID medium was also used to enumerate total coliforms and E.coli in both raw organic and conventional milk. Coli ID medium is
a commercially available medium used for recovering E.coli and other coliform organisms from food products at 37oC.
It is a selective chromogenic medium which contains two chromogenic substrates
which allow the direct recognition of coliforms and identification of E.coli, without the use of additional
reagents.  The rose/pink colonies which
grow are E.coli and the blue/green
colonies are recognised as coliforms as seen in figure 4.9 and figure 4.10.
(Dls web, 2017)

E.coli
is known as one of the most common contaminants of raw milk. Similar to total
coliforms it is a reliable indicator of faecal contamination of water and foods
such as milk and dairy products. High levels of E.coli in raw milk can also indicate low levels of milk hygiene and
quality. (Mhone et
al., 2011)

The
mean total coliforms enumerated on Coli ID medium for organic milk was 18.89 ±
24.84 CFU/ml while the mean for conventional milk was 42.75 ± 43.13 CFU/ml.
There was a higher mean of total coliforms found in conventional milk, however
there was no apparent significant difference between the two types of milk as
p>0.05 at 0.055726017. The mean
of E.coli enumerated on Coli ID
medium for organic milk was 20.35 ± 26.57 CFU/ml while the mean E.coli for conventional milk was 15.15 ±
11.90 CFU/ml. The organic milk had a slightly higher mean of E.coli , however there was no
significant difference between the two samples as p > 0.05 at 0.429453713.

The overall mean results
of each bacteria tested on organic and conventional milk can be seen below in figure 4.11. Hygienically inferior environmental
conditions such as shortcomings in daily cleaning and disinfection of all
milking equipment are commonly the main reason for poor microbial quality of
milk. Somatic cell count is another parameter which identifies farm hygiene. A
study carried out by Kou?imsKá  et al.,
(2014) concluded that there was no statistically significant difference in the
somatic cell count between the organic and conventional dairy farms.