The on the detailed and comprehensive discussion regarding

The last part of this study is based on
the detailed and comprehensive discussion regarding results which delivered in
previous chapter 4; that elaborates about, the importance recognized for five
consumption motives (i.e. health consciousness, food safety concern, personal
consumer traits, ecological motives and situational factors) through consumer
involvement that enhance the purchase intention regarding food items.

5.1.1 Direct association of identified
consumption motives regarding food choices with purchase intention.

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            In this study, the intention of consumers to purchase
healthy food products and identify the good quality of the food is determined
by customer’s attitude such as consciousness about health, concern on safety of
food, environmental protection, situational factors and their personal traits
i.e. novelty seeking, prefer to interaction for suggestions during buying of
food products. That would be significantly increase by the customers
involvement regarding food buying. The purchase intention has a positive and
significant impact determined by each motive of food choices. These mentioned
above motives of food choices for the customers of food consumption were
significantly positive relate with the direct and indirect relation of purchase
intention. As stated in prior studies (Teng & Lu, 2016) (Yadav & Pathak, 2015) (Mei-Fang, 2007) (Lee & Hwang, 2016) (Chen, 2007) (Shashi, Kottala, & Singh, 2016) (Hu, Huang, Zhong, M.Davison, & Zhao, 2016) (Yin, Chen, Du, & Wu, 2010) (Martinez & Jaeger, 2016)  the impact of purchase intention with any
group category of consumption attitude and behavior with respect to food
choices has significantly significant relationship. In this study it has been
confirmed that the significant relation of purchase intention with motives of
consumptions of food products and which have vital participation in the choice
of food behavior with the presence of consumer involvement that have been
increase the chances of purchase intention.

5.1.2 Direct association of identified
consumption motives regarding food choices with involvement of customers.

            The results of direct relationship
between customer’s food choice motives with customer involvement in this survey
based study elaborates that both have significant and positive impact. These
results that conducted in specific survey area were verify the past studies
researches (Hemmerling, Hamm, & Spiller, 2015) (Hughner, Mcdonagh, Prothero, Shultz, & Stanton, 2007)  (Michaelidou & Hassan, 2010)  (Schleenbecker & Hamm, 2013) (Vermeir & Verbeke, 2006) (Yiridoe, Bonti-Ankomah, & Martin, 2005) (Jabs & Devine, 2006) (Lee K. , 2010) (Akbari, Gholizadeh, & Zomorrodi, 2014) that specific
motives of food consumption of customers to choice or select the food items
including, concern of food safety, consciousness about health, personal
consumer traits (i.e. novelty seeking, need for interaction, self efficiency)
and situational factors (i.e. time pressure and peer influence) and ecological
motives; all have significant and positive relationship to the involvement of
customers with the selecting of food products. As confirmed that the consumer
involvement regarding selection of food were perform a vital part in these
consumption motives of customers to enhance the purchasing level and customer

5.1.3 Indirect effect of individually
five consumption motives with purchase intention through consumer involvement;
to enhance purchase intention regarding food choices.

The identified consumption choices in
this study; individually have positive and significant relationship with
purchase intention regarding food items, that is maximize after the insertion
of consumer involvement. As concurs with the (Teng & Lu, 2016) health consciousness significantly associate with purchase
intention and have vital value in the process of selection of food and buying.
That is significantly increased due to the participation of customer
involvement between food choice motive and buying intention of food products.
The respondents who have high concern about health conscious and prefer to
attach themselves with health related activities and consumption of food based
on the values and inherent needs about health. (Hill & Lynchehaun, 2002); (Michaelidou
& Hassan, 2010). The positive and significant results
of this study regarding health consciousness confirmed the results of (Chen M.-F. , 2007) survey research that
also have strongly positive impact of consciousness about health to purchasing
food items with high involvement.

of the most vital credence factor is
personal traits of customers in which included their self efficiency,
preference for interaction and novelty seeking regarding selection of food
items in this study that concern a significant positive impact on purchase
intention in the inclusion of involvement of customers. The results were not
highly consistence with the prior studies regarding customer’s personal
personality traits. As stated by (Mei-Fang, 2007) the observable
negative sign of the customer’s high involvement in interaction term to
purchasing food in customer personal traits. It happened due to possible two
causes, first is that after the inconvenient and bad experience without being
effected on customer’s positive behavior; the customer prefer high involvement
regarding their self efficiency and novelty seeking would have minimal chance
to buy food product. And the second possible reason is caused by the
interaction level during buying food products still lower than the maximum
involvement, elaborates that the willingness to purchase food items is high but
lack of interaction is no longer influence to intention of consumer to purchase
of select food products as their requirement or need. After this, the customers
personal personality traits would particularly used to control the high
involvement of customers in food choices (Chen, 2007).
But as mentioned previously; this could not deter to the maximizing of customer
involvement during purchase food products with respect to customer personal
traits because often without involvement, individual’s choices of food have
less ability to create discrimination as compared to the inclusion of
involvement in purchasing food products. (Marshall & Bell, 2004)

concluded in this study the positively significant impact of food safety with purchasing of food
items by including the involvement during buying behavior. As prior studies it
have been confirmed that the positive relationship is exist between both
factors and appear as a most strong motive of the food consumptions because
quality of food and safety of food is more important as compared to its price (Kerin, Jain, & Howard, 1992). Furthermore, the
customer’s concerns regarding safety have been examined as an important for
increasing the involvement of customers for paying attention on food
purchasing. The result of this study shows that the food safety might be highly
essential factor for customers in food purchasing exercise and as the past
studies results, it elaborates that the customers give attention and have been
involve to the characteristics such as ‘food should be natural, no artificial
material added’ (Lockie, Lyons, Lawrence, & Mummery, 2002)    ‘avoid to mix any chemical stuff’ (Yin, Wu, Du, & Chen, 2010) and ‘safety of food’
(Cerjak, Mesic, Kopic, Kovacic, & Markovina, 2010)  are attracted to customers to involve with
food items and create the intention to purchase. Coincidently this is related
with (Bezençon & Blili, 2010) findings that
revealing about the high level of concern of customers regarding safety of food
based to decreases and avoid the risk of food safety issues by consuming food
items. Hence, it were proved that the high involvement of respondents with food
buying that is significantly related with customer’s values, preferences and
need for safety of food.

respondents of this survey study who are highly involved and strongly aware
about the importance of the ecological
motives such as environmental protection and ethical concern/animal
welfare; it have been determine conducting strong enough involvement with food
purchasing. The outcomes of this study elaborates that the ecological motives
were highly concerned for respondents, that is consistent among other various
findings of the researches (Lee K. , 2010) (Chen, 2007)
(Hjelmar, 2011) but it is not necessarily that these
findings are implemented on all type of culture regarding virtual value, that’s
why the findings might be inconsistent in past surveys (Zagata, 2012) (Zakowska-Biemans, 2011). Some contradictory
outcomes of the findings regarding the effect of environmental protection and
ethical concern on food items can be possible due to the differentiation of
virtual values and culture related to food terms and types in different
countries. (Aertsens, Verbeke, Mondelaers, & Huylenbroeck, 2009). For example, as
stated by (Chryssohoidis & Krystallis, 2005) in Greece the
environmental protection or friendliness are not considered to be as important
factor and it have been identified that the ethical concern like animal welfare
also not affected on the intention and decisions about food buying but it
identified widely in other aspects. (Zakowska-Biemans, 2011). Nevertheless,
further it was claimed by (Bezençon & Blili, 2010) that the importance
of ecological motives for those ethical customers who more prefer to have
ethical food products, which would based on the values of customers with
cultural, social and ecological principles. (Strong, 1996). Therefore, it has been confirmed by (Bezençon & Blili, 2010) that the high level
of individual concern with environmental like ethical and protection about
product purchase intention pointing out the high level of involvement. The
positive and significant results of this study confirms by the previous survey
results, that elaborates the customers of Pakistan have high concern about the
environmental and ethical protection of food making; this association is more
maximize after the customer involvement based on ecological values, norms and
beliefs in their daily food intake decisions.

the effect of situational factor in
this study found the highly and strong impact during the food choices and
intention to buying. Due to the situational factors, such as time pressure and
peer influence has been directly impact on the decision making regarding food
products in Pakistan. But this result are inconsistent with some studies due to
the cultural virtual values that are different from some other countries; as
stated that it may not supported to positively with purchasing behavior (Jabs & Devine, 2006) , the time scarcity
like the pressure of not enough time to selecting, preparing food and
identifying the good quality food has been change the consumption decision.
Some kind of consumers was preferred the convenient food as stated by (Celnik, Gillespie, & Lean, 2012) in the shortage of
time and purchase from not their specific food products, they are not bound
under the lack of time and increase the purchasing level overall, according to
the convenient food is most popular but the high involved customer must concern
about taste, healthiness and freshness of the convenient food that they taken
in shirt time (Candel, 2001) (Dave, An, Jeffery, & Ahluwalia, 2009)   As the results in (Kaman Lee, 2010) the peer influence is the strong and
positively significant factor to increase the level of distinguishing between
pure organic food and functional food (contains artificial vitamins and
nutritious) and then maximize the purchase of food. The peer including friends,
parents and other mates could be as a role model for those consumers who
motivated from other’s choices and seeking about new information and
observational learner about the daily intake food items, after discussion they
going to purchase new food; by this the customers playing high involvement to
show concern related with good food. (Cullen, Baranowski, Cosart, & Moor, 2001)  (Millstein, Petersen, & Nightingale, 1994) (Smith, Menon, & Sivakumar, 2005) (Tufte, Rasmussen, & Christensen, 2005). As stated in
majority researches that the situational factor

5.1.4 Impact of customer involvement as
mediator to increase purchase intention regarding food items.

            The survey of this study contained the consumer involvement as a
mediation factor and the results shown the significant and positive mediation
has been occurred between each identified motives of consumptions regarding
food choices and purchase intention of the food items. This happened or
possible after the significant relationship occurred between consumer
involvement and purchase intention; as well as between consumer involvement and
identified food consumption motives.

consumer involvement’s effect on the intention of food toward purchase has been
observed, highly significant and positively related. The high level of
involvement of customer regarding food products highly tent toward purchase intention,
(Bravo, Cordts, Schulze, & Spiller, 2013) the results of this
survey also confirm that the consumer involvement perform as a mediating factor between purchase
intention and five identified food consumption motives.
These finding are consistent with some past research studies in which the
consumer involvement act as a mediation (Thøgersen, Jørgensen, & Sandager, 2012) (Aertsens, Verbeke, Mondelaers, & Huylenbroeck,
2009)  (Vermeir & Verbeke, 2006). Furthermore, the
results reveal that the consumer involvement especially in buying and selection of food enhance the link
between food consumption motives and purchase, for example involve gathering
information related to food.