The enter the navy following the father steps,

The prime minister Francisco Franco, known just as Franco, was one of the most relevant general and politician of the 20th century. He’s opera began in 1939 by turning the Spanish government into a dictatorship as a result of a long civil war.Franco was born on the 4th of December 1892 and baptised in the military church of San Francisco and his baptismal name is Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo. Furthermore, his father was an influential member of the Spanish navy, so the choice to join the Spanish military was strongly caused by the father figure.In fact, at the age of 15, Franco tried to enter the navy following the father steps, but due to the Spanish-American war, the country lost a big part of its navy, limiting the new entrances as they weren’t needed. As an alternative, Franco decided to join the army, entering in 1907 the Infantry Academy of Toledo.Soon, only 5 years later, Franco already managed to succeed in the army. In 1912, having a relevant role in his country armoured forces, he has been assigned the mission that would start his escalation of achievements, and the strongest period of development of his career. He was sent to Morocco, the next Spanish objective: to create a new protectorate in Africa (8). But the results of the intervention in the foreign country were gradually exasperating. Many Spanish soldiers were killed, and the government that started to be pessimistic about the future of the operative. To encourage the soldiers and the officers fighting abroad, the government started giving away merits to anyone who would help to turn over the situation, giving another chance to Franco, who used the opportunity to acquire a good reputation as an officer. At the age of 23, he was already a captain. After surviving a severe injury (9), he was then promoted to Major, the youngest of the Spanish army. In 1920 he was the second in command of the Spanish foreign legion, and in 1923, after great performances, he was made the commander of the legion. Then, after numerous gains of territories, he was well known in the country and earned the promotion to General. Moreover, he was appointed director of the new General Military Academy of Zaragoza, an important stage for him, as about the 95% of his cadets will then join his side in the Spanish civil war which will be now discussed shortly the outbreak of it and then the conclusion and the reform (10)(11).The rise of Franco to power has the consecutive and repetitive failure of previous governments as one of its main reasons, the defeat of the spanish army in the Disaster of Annual comproves itself the entry date of spain into a period of extreme political instability. Between 1923 and 1933, Spain had 9 prime ministers. The key to be successful on such scenario was to implement economic reforms that could increase employment and at the same time, not worry the right about the possibility of a marxist regime. The Spanish Government’s between 1923 and 1933 find themselves in the plight between the hunger of the working class and the fear of the middle and higher classes.Primo’s dictatorship was caused by a large military defeat of the spanish military by the Rif(5), an african republic that raised resistance against the attempt of spanish occupation in Morocco.  Ten thousand spanish soldiers were killed(1) in what would be later on called the “Disaster of Annual”. The King Alfonso was blamed for such defeat (6), particularly over his military incompetence during such battle and his recurrent efforts in implementing the invasion of Morocco , the army, ashamed, was angered by the defeat(7), the population now resented the king for the death of soldiers and the general were revolted by the humiliation felt by the spanish army.Often seen as a soft dictatorship, Miguel Primo de Rivera installed a right wing autocracy between 1923 and 1930, he installed a planned economy that rellied on protectionism and investment in public infrastructure, in the attempt to increase economic growth(1).The Economic Depression that follows the end of World War One is of extreme importance since it creates mass unemployment, and inflation, upsetting both the lower classes, and allowing the possibility of leftist uprisings, as the Financial elites, that demanded change in economic plans to control inflation. Spain found herself in economic recession since the end of World War One, a period of economic boom when the decrease in overall european production created a continental market with less external competition, Spain would largely export textiles and agricultural goods, France was their main importer. During the war, French, German and British industries had a much lower production since their labour was focused on the production of armament. An example of this would be the textile industry in Germany, that lost 40 percent of its workforce to allow women to work in the manufacturing of artillery shells and bullets (18), this created a large and ephemeral extension in demand for spanish goods between 1914 and 1918. Between 1918 and 1921 the artificial aggregate demand created by The Great War vanishes, the vast amount of firms assembled during the war to export products to the Allies and Central Powers goes bankrupt and leaves these workers in the streets with high inflation. These 3 years are marked by civil unrest and unemployment(1). This mass unemployment will be the breeding ground for radical leftist political groups and the right-wing paranoia that will eventually lead to the rise of Franco.The CNT, National Confederation of Labour, a militant anarcho-communist group, was a large labour union that had radical terrorist cells within them,as the “solidarios”. The CNT generally believed in overthrowing capitalism(4). Between 1918 and 1921, conflicts between the CNT armed groups and employers killed over a thousand people in Barcelona(1). This revolt against wealth inequality and humiliation brought by the spanish defeat in Morocco would give place to the rise of Primo, who would have his government overthrown once he failed stabilize the economic growth he intended(1).Primo installed a series of monopolies on the oil and tobacco industries, he failed to implement a tax reform, inflation increased and the value of the peseta fell substantially, there was public revolt against the censoring of the press and oppression of freedom of speech(1), his government was protected by landlords and therefore he failed to implement a land reform that was asked by the CNT and other leftist groups(4), and prohibited the use of the Catalan Language, when the country already had independence demands. Food prices fell as the Great Depression hit Spain, the largest industry was agricultural, and therefore unemployment increased substantially(1). Primo also politicised the promotion system in Spanish Artillery Corps, upsetting the military(6). King Alfonso gradually turned against him(1), hoping to be seen in a glorified way to recover his popularity lost during the Disaster of the Annual of 1921(The defeat in Morocco) (6), in the 30th of January Primo gives up his government, realizing that his support by the military was very weak and discontent among the royal family and the people was strong. He exiled himself in France(6), dying in the same year(3).The general election of June of 1931 would render 80 percent of the parliamentary seats to the coalition with over fifty percent of the votes. These large coalitions allowed people of vastly different interests, such as liberals and socialists to unite, and as a result the left-wing won(8). This new government would implement several radical changes, between them, some also in the constitution such as the article 44, that allowed private property to be confiscated by the state for “social utility”(1) (redistribution of income for example). The new Prime Minister Manuel Azana was known for a strong belief in the separation of church and state, the new constitution made all education necessarily secular, and would stop the state sponsoring of the church in two years(1). These changes caused great disturb of the church and Catholic peasants that immediately decided to move against the newly formed republic. The Republic provided Catalonia with almost complete autonomy over their internal policy, which the right believed to be a threat to the unity of Spain. The Agrarian Reform Law of September 1932, allowed the state to take away land with nothing but the promise of compensation(1), installing paranoia and revolt in the landlords. To increase government budget and diminish the threat posed by the right, the leaders decided to cut military spending and the close military academies (including Zaragoza, where Franco was in command). Factory workers and peasants were unhappy with the slow pace of such changes, while urban population and elites believed Spain was following the steps of the Soviet Union(1). Anarchists used the coalition to get seats in the parliament, then encouraged the population to refuse the republic by starting riots and strikes. The conflict between the civil guard and rural labourers was recurrent, in December 1931, four civil guards were killed in southern Spain, where the police were accused of killing several demonstrators(1).In October 1933, after two years since the fall of monarchy, the elections resulted in a solid victory of the centre-right (12). This election took place after the collapse of the leftist government that ruled between 1931 and 1933, a government that was unsuccessful in generating economic growth or implementing the promised social change to the working classes (1). Manuel Azana resigned due to the political pressure, his natural successors Alejandro Lerroux, and later Diego Martínez Barrio, resigned, being both a total of 95 days in power (Lerroux stayed 27 days and Barrio 68 says) due to the incapacity of installing a stable government, therefore the election was called again for in November 1933.The government installed would be called by the left as the “two black years”(1), where the few reforms that were installed would be reverted and the defense of socialism and communism would be oppressed. In Germany the socialists or being very opressed, the same was taking place in Austria. The left feared a right-wing dictatorship and the right feared a marxist revolution. As a response to the entering of three members of CEDA in to the Government (an institution regarded as fascist)(1),in 1934 a revolutionary communist/anarchist movement started a rebellion against the government, these rebellions were silenced in Madrid and Barcelona but in the north of Spain they were more successful. In Asturias coal mine workers, socialists, and anarchists captured Oviedo, the capital of the province. The rebellion was oppressed with great hardship, 4000 casualties emerged from the armed conflict (1). Cases such as the Asturias spread through the country under the arm of the Popular Front, a coalition that united all those who opposed fascism, from democrats to anarchists(1). Franco, the same  year was made general of the division in support of the prime minister, Diego Hidalgo, and he was sent with his Spanish Army of Africa to repress the rebellion.Later, in 1935, at the begin of the Spanish civil war, the General in command Lopez Ochoa was assassinated (13), and Franco became the new Chief of the General staff. Soon, just one year later, the new elections which brought to power the left-wing that was intended to create a communist dictatorship, created enormous tension within the country. In fact, the right-wing in order to strive for freedom, order, law and the rights of the Spanish people, decided to rebel, and the date of the outbreak has been set on the 18th of July 1936. Franco had to choose who to side with, the government which would turn Spain in a communist dictatorship, or the rebels which would fight with Francisco or without Francisco (con Paquito and sin Paquito) (14). Once he agreed to side with the rebels, he became in charge of the Spanish Army of Africa and left for the southern continent. The Spanish Civil War began a day earlier than predicted as a result of the assassination of the right-wing party leader, and in a week they managed to get control of a third of the country but weren’t able to have a definitive victory (15). Nevertheless, the Spanish Civil War began and it would end in 1939 with Franco’s victory, but also with a huge amount of casualties. The conflict had then escalated internationally (16), different nations were sending support, as Italy and Germany to the right-wing, and Russians within Spain supported the left-wing (17) in what quickly became a proxy war in the struggle for hegemony in the ideological european theater of the 1930s. The Rise of Franco can be explained majorly by the economic recession that Spain enters after 1918, a recession that was further enhanced by the Wall Street Crash in 1929, the mass unemployment generated by the economic boom between 1914 and 1918 would create prosperous seeds for marxism, at the same time, as the ideological tide of Europe swinged to right-wing extremism(19), the atmosphere of paranoia by the right-wing, and poverty driven revolution by the left, a revolution even more angered by the oppressions of what should be a democratic republic between 1933 and 1936, led to the Civil War that would allow Franco to rise to power, partially by Force, partially by the desperate desire of change and partially by fear of Communism.