The c?nflict began in December 2013 when armed f?rces dev?ted t? President
Salva Kiir, a Dinka, and th?se l?yal t? previ?us Vice President Riek Machar, a
Nuer, battled in the capital f?ll?wing m?nths ?f gr?wing p?litical pressures.
In December 2015, President Kiir diss?lved S?uth Sudan’s 10 regi?nal states and
f?rmed 28 new states, fueling c?nflict in many regi?ns. Alth?ugh the tw? sides
f?rmed a nati?nal unity g?vernment in April 2016, f?ll?wing the August 2015 peace
agreement, they c?ntinued t? fight in c?untless sites. In July, clashes in the
capital, Juba, caused Machar t? flee the state. President Kiir then selected a previ?us
ally ?f Machar, Gen. Taban Deng Gai, as first vice president, enc?uragement Machar’s
gr?up t? call f?r a return t? war.                                                                                                                          Despite
signing a peace agreement in August 2016 b?th the g?vernment and the ?pp?siti?n
f?rces c?ntinued t? c?mmit seri?us atr?cities and endangering citizens by c?ntinuing
the civil war that started ?n December 2013 and t?re their new c?untry apart. G?vernment armed
f?rces murdered, raped, and t?rtured citizens as well as destr?ying and stealing
civilian g??ds during c?unterinsurgency ?perati?ns in the s?uthern and western
parts ?f the c?untry, and b?th sides c?mmitted cruelties against civilians in and
ar?und Juba and ?ther regi?ns. 200,000 pe?ple were enf?rced t? escape their h?mes,
bringing the t?tal displaced t? 2.4 milli?n. Th?se left behind, including pe?ple
with disabilities, have faced a huge am?unt ?f mistreatment. In N?vember, UN Special Advis?r ?n the Preventi?n
?f Gen?cide Adama Dieng said the ?ng?ing vi?lence had transf?rmed the battle
int? an “ethnic war” and warned ?f a “p?tential f?r gen?cide.” G?vernment investigati?ns
have rarely led t? actual and l?ng-term acc?untability measures. A mix c?urt planned
by the peace agreement t? examine and pr?secute internati?nal crimes c?mmitted
during the recent c?nflict has yet t? be implemented by the African Uni?n and
the S?uth Sudanese g?vernment.