The structure of the book is divided into chapters told from different narratives, thus creating a novel with multiple plot strands. The three narrators are Oskar, his grandfather, and his grandmother. They each have their own standalone story that intertwines by the end of the book. The most confusing part towards the beginning of the book is the mystery behind who the narrator is. Foer uses old letters to Oskar’s dad from his grandpa to paint a picture from the past. However, the reader does not know who the narrator of these letters are until later in the book. Foer does not follow a steady timeline; instead he often skips entire years between events. One of Foer’s most prevalent techniques is including actual photographs to entice the reader to stay interested in the reading. Pictures in the book were placed, stated by Foer, for two reasons; because children take mental snapshots; they hoard and are able to remember them years later and also because 9/11 was a very visually illustrated historical event, remembered by vivid images of planes crashing into the trade center and of people falling. Foer employs other visual techniques into his text as well. When Oskar’s grandmother is writing she always puts two spaces after each period. This is to demonstrate how much time has passed since Oskar’s grandmother wrote her letters from a typewriter. In every other chapter is the perspective of Oskar, while the remaining chapters alternate between letters written by Grandma to Oskar and letters written by Grandpa to Thomas Schell. The letters written by Oskar’s grandparents their past how they meet each other.. In the letters written by Grandpa, a common structural feature is the use of entire pages of short phrases. In these pages Grandpa has written phrases to communicate with others, due to his inability to speak. One chapter that is unique to the rest is Chapter 10 (Why I’m Not Where You Are – 4/12/78). It contains many words and phrases which are circled in red pen. This is the only letter that Oskar’s father received from his own father, a father he never knew. In this part of the novel, the entire chapter is annotated in red pen by Thomas Schell, where he marks the entire letter, circling errors in the letter. These contribute to the author’s purpose of overcoming trauma. Foer wants the readers to think about the hardships we all face throughout our life and how we not only overcome them, but allow them to give us strength for another day.