the of major economic importance in bovines in

the livestock sector plays vital role in the
economy of  Pakistan, to meet the
increasing demand of milk and milk by products, 
dairy cattles are being imported into the country.    (Jabbar,
Abbas et al. 2015). According to economical survey 2013/2014, the
contribution of  the livestock sector in
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is  11.8 % while it contributed 55.9% in all
agricultural commodities. Pakistan is divided into ten agro ecological zones on
the basis of climatic conditions, water resources, land use and topography,
which influence temporal, and spatial patterns of livestock diseases. In South
Asia, Pakistan is located in the sub tropical zone (30° N, 70° E) and its
environmental conditions becomes suitable for the ticks. Tick act as vector for
different diseases in animals, humans, and companion animals known as Tick Born
Diseases (TBDs). The main tick born diseases that affect the bovines worldwide
are Theleriosis, Babesiosis, Anaplasmosis and Ehrlichiosis. and the former
three are of major economic importance in bovines in Pakistan. (Jabbar,
Abbas et al. 2015). Ehrlichiosis is
an emerging infectious disease of domestic animals which is transmitted by ticks, Ehrlichiosis is
recognized as rickettsial disease that affects various mammals including
cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and humans worldwide. Ehrlichiosis is one of the
most important public health issues across the world, especially in tropical
and subtropical regions(Zhang, Chang et al.
2017). Anaplasma
and Ehrlichia species comprise a cluster of obligate, intracellular,
gram-negative, pleomorphic, and tick borne 
organisms thatinfect animal and human.These bacteria species belong to
the familyAnaplasmataceae, order Rickettsiales.
(Dumler,
Barbet et al. 2001)
According to the latest
classification of Rickettsiales order, it contains various genera, including
Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, and Wolbachia(Dumler, Barbet et al. 2001) After infecting the host, Ehrlichia multiply
in monocytes and macrophages or
in peripheral blood neutrophils,
and spread to phagocyte cells
of different organs such as liver, spleen, lungs and lymph nodes(Dumler 2005) In United States, it is recognized as pathogen of
dogs and human’s disease additionally causes serious illness in ruminants in
Europe(Gokce and Woldehiwet 1999). Ehrlichia bacteria causes disease in ruminants from mild
illness to fetal disease;
infected goats exhibited mild pyrexia, lethargy, inappetance, serous or mild nasal
discharge, elevated rectal temperature and decreased ALP activity(Loftis, Levin et al. 2008). The canine Ehrlichiosisis characterized by a high fever,
lymphadenomegaly, hemorrhagic tendencies, depression, lethargy, anorexia and splenomegaly(Harrus and Waner 2011).in cattles Animals develop an acute high fever, loss of
appetite, depression, respiratory distress and rapid breathing. Nervous system
signs can soon follow and be seen as excessive chewing movements, eyelid
twitching, and tongue protrusion, walking in circles and with a high stepping
gait. Some animals may have convulsions.Galloping movements (Teklu, Aman et al.
2017).Among mammalian animals,members of Anaplasmataceae have been
widely studied based on molecular analysis in dogs, but mostly neglected in
other domestic animal species(Sharifiyazdi, Jafari
et al. 2017). Polymerase chain reaction
(PCR) testing is a sensitive and specific method that will detect infections of
Anaplasmataceae in different animals(Weisburg, Barns et
al. 1991) The aim of this molecular study was to investigate the
occurrence of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species in dromedarian camels in the
south of Iran using 16S rDNA approach.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) cause substantial
economic losses in bovines, particularly in tropical, and subtropical regions,
where 80 % of the world’s total cattle population occurs (de
Castro 1997). and can significantly affect the livelihoods of
resource-poor farming communities due to lower productivity of both beef and
dairy cattle in these regions (Perry
2002). Being located in a subtropical zone (30° N, 70° E) within
South Asia, most parts of Pakistan offer favourable environmental conditions
for ticks, which can infest a variety of hosts and transmit diseases to humans,
livestock, and companion animals. (Jabbar,
Abbas et al. 2015).

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Tick
species in pakistan

In total, 3,807 ixodid ticks
(female: 1,303; male: 1,261; nymph: 1,231; larva: 12) were collected from 108
livestock farms (Table 1). They belonged to four species. Hyalomma anatolicum
(n=3,021, 79.3%) was the most common species, followed by R. microplus (n=715,
18.8%), H. dromedarii (n=41, 1.1%), and R. turanicus (n=30, 0.8%).
Rhipicephalus microplus was predominant in the semi-arid zone, while H.
anatolicum was the most common tick species in the arid zone,Hyalomma
dromedarii and R. turanicus were only present in the arid zone All livestock herds,
irrespective of their geographic location, were found infested with one or
multiple tick species. Within the herds, tick-infested ruminants was 78.3% (369/471); The overall
proportion of  this was highest in cattle
(89.9%), followed by buffaloes (81.4%), goats (60.0%) and sheep (11.1%) the
tick prevalence varied from 20 to 100% (Mean±SD; 80±20%). Out of all infested
animals, 71.0% (n=265) were infested with H.anatolicum, 17.0% (n=59) with R.
microplus, 1.4% ( n=5) withH. dromedarii, 1.1% ( n=4) with R. turanicus and
9.5% (n=36) were found to have a mixed infestation with more than one tick
species (Rehman, Nijhof
et al. 2017)

Current
knowledge of bovine TBDs in Pakista

 In Pakistan theileriosis, babesiosis, and
anaplasmosis are major infectious diseases of water buffaloes and cattle, and
are caused by T. annulata, B. bovis, and B.
bigemina as well as A. marginale and A.
centrale, respectively(Durrani and
Kamal 2008). Ehrlichiosis is an emerging infectious
disease of domestic animals which
is transmitted by ticks. This disease has been reported earlier in most parts of
China in dogs, cattle and humans(Zhang, Chang et al.
2017). Anaplasma
and Ehrlichia species comprise a cluster of obligate, intracellular,
gram-negative, pleomorphic, and tickborne organisms that infect animal and
human.These bacteria species belong to the family Anaplasmataceae, order
Rickettsiales (Dumler, Barbet et
al. 2001)
According to the latest classification of
Rickettsiales order, it contains various genera, including Anaplasma,
Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, and Wolbachia (Dumler et al. 2001). These organisms
transmitted via ticks in both domesticated and wild vertebrate animals (Nicholson, Allen et
al. 2010)
Among mammalian animals,members of Anaplasmataceae
have been widely studied based on molecular analysis in dogs, but mostly
neglected in other domestic animal species.

Pathogenesis

After infecting the host, Ehrlichia multiply
in monocytes and macrophages or in peripheral
blood  neutrophils, and spread to phagocyte cells of different organs such as liver,
spleen, lungs and lymph nodes

 

 

 

 

 

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(1997). “Sustainable tick and tickborne disease control in livestock
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Dumler, J. S. (2005). “Anaplasma and Ehrlichia infection.” Annals
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361-373.

               

Dumler, J. S., et al. (2001). “Reorganization of genera in the
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unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia
and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, descriptions of six new species combinations
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2145-2165.

               

Durrani, A. and N. Kamal (2008). “Identification of ticks and
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animal health and production 40(6):
441-447.

               

Gokce, H. and Z. Woldehiwet (1999). “The effects of Ehrlichia
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93-103.

               

Harrus, S. and T. Waner (2011). “Diagnosis of canine monocytotropic
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Loftis, A. D., et al. (2008). “Two USA Ehrlichia spp. cause febrile
illness in goats.” Veterinary microbiology 130(3): 398-402.

               

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and risk factors associated with high tick prevalence in livestock farms in the
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