The protection and support to victims and covers

The Modern Slavery Act 2015 provides legal
protection and support to victims and covers two offences – human trafficking
and forced labour and servitude. Adesina (2014) mentions that Modern-day
slavery victims are typically very poor, vulnerable and marginalised.
Furthermore, they are unaware of the imperfect nature of contract or of
transaction terms, the process of enslavement, and they lack viable secondary
sources (Hawkins, 2017).The modern-day slavery perpetrators, in contrast,
exploit the incompleteness of contracts or transactions in terms of the
significant information gap between them and the victims (or potential victims)
and the desperate state of the enslaveables that results from their ignorance,
vulnerability and the absence of viable alternatives ( Modern Act 2015).
Traffickers are normally part of a sophisticated and well organised criminal
supply chain and vulnerable children do not know what they are getting into and
are easily intimidated with threats and violence from traffickers (Chase and
Statham, 2005). They can be promised a better future abroad and are then
trafficked and sold as slaves and become indebted for their passage to the UK,
or bound by family debt (Imaobong and Usoroh, 2006). Occurrence of child labor
is also a consequence of poverty (Adesina, 2014); (Dodsworth, 2013); (Hawkins,
2017) and (Haynes, 2015). Poor families, allowing (or sending) their child to
work is one of the only ways to support the family in third world countries. If
the choice is between starving and eating, what kind of parent would not allow
their child to work (Imaobong and Usoroh, 2006). It is at this point, when
families are at their poorest, that slavers strike. Many parents entrust their
young to slavers who promise safety and, at the least, regular meals for their
children. Yet the children are seldom treated as well as promised. Compounding
this problem is the cultural practice and mostly common in Africa, of placing
children in the care of extended family members in hopes of a better life
(Imaobong and Usoroh, 2006). Many young people do take it upon themselves to
work, either to support their family or to further their own education
(Erikson, 1959) however slavers can exploit this desire without resorting to
overt means of ensnarement.  If children
are working, they are probably not attending school, which in turn perpetuates
the cycle of slavery (Modern Slavery Act, 2015).

Prevlant Discourse

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Anti-Social Behavior, Crime
and Policing Act 2014 Section 116 of this act ‘Protection from sexual harm and
violence’ allows police to require hotels and similar establishments, in which
they reasonably believe child sexual exploitation is taking place, to provide
information about guests (Open Government Licence v3.0, 2017). This is intended
to equip the police to better investigate sexual offences committed on these
types premises. Section 113 amends the Sexual Offences Act 2003 to create Sexual
Harm Prevention Orders (SHPOs) and Sexual Risk Orders (SROs) (Open Government
Licence v3.0, 2017). An SHPO or SRO is intended to protect the public or an
individual against sexual harm. The Guidance on the Sexual Offences Act 2003,
this advice replaces the 2009 guidance Safeguarding children and young people
from sexual exploitation. Home Office guidance (2004, 2015) Part 1 provides an
explanation of what each sexual offence covers, cases where it can be used and
maximum penalty (Home Office, 2006). Part 2 deals with provision for sex
offenders and provides guidance for police and practitioners on the
notification requirements for registered sex offenders and Sexual Harm
Prevention Orders (SHPOs) and Sexual Risk Orders (SROs) Home office (2015)
(Home Office, 2015). Guidelines on prosecuting cases of child sexual abuse
(Crown Prosecution Service (CPS), 2013 issued 2013 and revised 2017 in relation
to section 15A of the Sexual Offences Act 2003 (Home Office, 2015). These
guidelines set out the approach that prosecutors should take when dealing with
child sexual abuse cases, including child sexual exploitation.

England, Northern Ireland,
Scotland and Wales each have their own guidance for how professionals must
respond to child abuse and protect children from harm, which includes child
sexual exploitation (HM Government, 2015); (Barnardo’s and Local Government
Association, 2012); (Beckett, Holmes and Walker, 2017)   and (Sex Offenders Act, 2003). There is no
specific offence of ‘child sexual exploitation’ in the UK. Instead,
prosecutions can be brought under a range of offences in each nation’s
legislative framework to protect children from harm. Prosecutions for child
sexual exploitation can be brought under provisions of the Sexual Offences Act
2003. The NSPCC’s Flaw in Law campaign successfully amended the Serious Crime
Bill Act 2015 so that it is now a criminal offence for an adult to send a
sexual message to a child (Child Exploitation and Online Protection, 2011);
(Barnardo’s (2014) and (Open Government Licence v3.0, 2017). The Serious Crime
Act which received royal assent on 3rd March 2015 amends section 15 of the
Sexual Offences Act 2003(Open Government Licence v3.0, 2017). Closing this gap
in the legislation means that predators will be discouraged from grooming
children online for sexual exploitation and the police will be able to act
against offenders earlier on in the grooming act.