The Georgia and located between the Black

The Caucasus Region, also known as the Land of
Diverse Cultures, is made up of a   diversity
of ethnic groups, languages, religions, geography, history, and cultures. It is
one of the most culturally sophisticated and diverse parts of the world, known
as well as for its geopolitical issues and cultural conflicts. First of all,
the Caucasus Region is a region separated by mountain from Azerbaijan and
Georgia and located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. It is separated
from North and South – the Northern Caucasus and Southern Caucasus or
Transcaucasia- because of the collapse of Soviet Union. Geographically, Northern
Caucasus includes Russian Republics, whereas Southern Caucasus includes Georgia,
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and others. The existence of several ethnic groups and
cultures in the Caucasus region mainly influence on the condition of the
region, causing tensions and the major crisis between different ethnic groups.

     It all started with Bolshevik, the
leadership of Soviet Union, in the process of forming republican borders to
create ethno-federalist structure. However, creating an ethno-federalist
structure was not easy to achieve, as there were numerous highly intermixed and
dispersed ethnicities. With the four criteria of national language, set territory,
culture, and economy, fifteen nationalities were created. Nevertheless, only
fifty-three out of hundred national identities were legitimately recognized and
established special rights. But, after the Soviet Union collapsed, there was an
immense change from ethno-federalist structure to state institutions, which
combine many ethnicities living near each other to one group.  From that point forward, non-titular ethnic
groups, such as Lezgins, lost their own institutions and were unable to
mobilize. People were debating about issues of territory, where citizens were
arguing who own which part of the land. Additionally, people of different
ethnicities were having concerns of trespassing. This caused an imbalance in
the region. Estimated 1.5 million people were forced to move out of their
houses in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan and they had to bear a tremendous
burden. Besides, ethnic groups were in the desire of an autonomous country. Therefore,
there became several ethno-territorial conflicts and rise of ethnic-strife in
the Caucasus, causing a great turmoil.

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     Another widely
known territorial and ethnic clash in Caucasus region is Nagorna-Karabakh
conflict, which was between Armenia and Azerbaijan. This conflict originated
since the early 20th century, when Karabakh Armenians claimed to
transform Soviet Azerbiajan to Soviet Armenians. Due to this issue, it
triggered Nagorno-Karabakh war and ethnic tensions. Additionally, as the Soviet
Union’s integration approached, it increased the violent tensions between
ethnic Armenia and ethnic Azerbaijan, resulting in the ethnic cleansing by both
sides. Several groups such as Organization for Security and Co-operation in
Europe tried to bring an end to this full-scale fighting by having a solution
that both sides would agree on, however, they failed to. Later on, Armenia
forces attacked and threatened the regions, gradually having the full control
of most of Azerbaijan’s regions. In May 1944, Nagorno-Karabakh war ceasefire,
which was facilitated by the OSCE group. Nevertheless, in 2008, following the
Armenia Presidential Election, Mardakert Skirmishes, a heavily violent fighting,
and many protests, occurred between Armenia and Azerbaijan forces. Over ten
thousand demonstrators held mass protests, which lasted for ten days. During
this occurrence, clashes between police and protesters occurred and some
officers and citizens died. Armenia forces indicted that Azerbaijani were
taking advantage of on-going unrest in Armenia. However, Azerbaijan side
refused and claimed that they’re ready to conquer their regions again by force.
Moreover, Azerbaijan’s President llham Aliyev has been preparing military
hardware to accomplish the plan. During March 8 to 9 2008, according to
Armenian version of events, it said, ” Azerbaijani forces attacked Armenian
positions near the village of Levonarkh. They seized positions held by Armenian
forces, and used heavy artillery in fighting.” The conflict between Azerbaijan and
Armenian is still ongoing and similarly, many ethnic groups in Caucasus region
are facing this issue.

            In conclusion, a region, made up of a
diversity of ethnic groups, languages, religions, geography, history, and
cultures, is prone to facing these territorial and ethnic clashes. Until today,
many conflicts have not been solved perfectly.