TABLE OF CONTENTS
SCOPE & LIMITATION
MODES OF TRANSPORT
-SYNOPSIS OF DISSERTATION
-HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT
-TYPES OF AIRPORTS
-TERMINAL DESIGN PRINCIPALS
-COMPONENTS OF AN AIRPORT
-STRUCTURAL STUDY OF AIRPORTS
-ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND TECHNOLOGY
-ECONOMIC ASPECT OF AN AIRPOT
Location: Purandar, Pune
Size of plot: 4500 acres
Runways proposed: 2
The site is located in Purandar taluka, 50KM from the city
centre of Pune, hence has a hot and semi-arid climate with average temperatures
ranging from 19oC to 33oC.
The monsoons last from about June to October, and May is the
warmest month of the year.
The site is sloping down toward the south with approximately
50m of difference between the highest and the lowest contour
The site features two water bodies that are seasonal and is
an agricultural Greenfield plot otherwise.
The site can be accessed through two major highways namely NH61
The project being a live one the site has been chosen by the
government after detailed survey.
Pune is a sprawling city in
the western Indian state of Maharashtra. It was once the base of the Peshwas
(prime ministers) of the Maratha Empire, which lasted from 1674 to
1818.Considered to be the cultural capital of Maharashtra Pune is known as
“Oxford of the East” due to the presence of several well-known
educational institutions in the city. The city has emerged as a major
educational hub in recent decades, with nearly half of the total international
students in the country studying in Pune.
On the industrial front, Pune
has an ever expanding industrial sector with the automobile industry and the IT
industry growing in the past decade, major companies like Mercedes-Benz,
Volkswagen, Mahindra and Mahindra, Fiat have their production plants here, IT
companies like Infosys and Symantec have their offices here.
Pune also has a large
agricultural base and hence has great trading opportunities in the city.
With the city’s ever growing
population and opportunities for people, the need for a state-of-the-art airport
is a must.
The existing airport situated
in Lohegaon is an military base (Airforce) and hence has permission to have a
small civil terminal and the civil operations are hampered due to the military
training. The airport currently has roughly 90-100 flight operations daily and
has an apron capacity of only 5 aircrafts with an additional one used only for
Pune needs to cater to the
rising population both resident and floating and a bigger airport will help
ease the load on the nearby Mumbai airport.
According the survey
conducted by the airports authority of India, 55 new airports will be needed in
the country to cater to the rising population of air –travellers.
The Pune airport has been
handling passenger traffic which is more than its designed capacity, creating
regular delays and cancellation of flights and incontinence to passngers.
History and Development:
Right from the time the Wright brothers invented the
aircraft, aviation has come a long way, from use in wars to private transport.
Air travel being the fastest to travel, is preferred by many. Over the years
air transport has been thriving on providing one of the best user experiences
to its travellers and hence has developed rapidly over time.
Airports today are
much more than gateways to cities, countries or continents. They have developed
into city-like complexes and multifunctional systems, which while being set up
to serve the needs of smoothly running air traffic, at the same time have taken
on all the functions of a normal community: sleeping, shopping, work and
leisure time and all that increasingly with 24-7 access. After an era of purely
functional architecture, the nodal points of air traffic have become one of the
most prominent architectural tasks of the present.(Uffelen,
Airports play a
vital role in defining the image of a city, as they are the gateway to the city
and help majorly in the economic development of the city. Airports not only
cater to the passenger but also the cargo traffic of the city.
The aviation in
India since the first flight in 1911 for commercial purposes to Mumbai becoming
the world’s busiest airport on a single runway has come a long way, with state
of the art airport buildings in the country, the aviation industry is ever
expanding with six major air-carriers in the country three luxury, Air-India,
JetAirways and Vistara and three low-cost carriers, Indigo, GoAir and SpiceJet.
India is expanding
its network with the new scheme UDAN(Ude
Desh ka Aam Nagrik) aiming at providing affordable air travel for the
common man by capping the airfare at 2500/- for flight times less than an hour.
India has seen
major growth over the years with the country needing around 55 new airports by
the year 2030.
CHATTRAPATI SHIVAJI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT: (MUMBAI, MAHARASHTRA, INDIA)
Mumbai, the commercial capital of India is the leading
hotspot for the air-transport industry. It is currently the busiest airport on
a single runway in the world, with a record of 969 flights in 24 hours.
The CSIA T2 is an integrated terminal with both Domestic and
International Facilities, It has 192 check-in counters, parking for 108
aircrafts at a time, 60 boarding bridges and a vehicular car parking capacity
of 5000 cars.
The total area of the airport is 4,50,000 sqM carpet area
and is designed to cater to 40 million passengers annually.
Most airports are designed in a straight format with the
bridges on either side of the gate, but due to high volume of aircrafts and
space constraint the airport was designed in an ‘X’ format. This maximises the
potential of the site and caters to 60 flights via bridges.
Finished in 2012 the airport is an architectural and
engineering feat as it was built without hampering or closing down the active
international airport in Mumbai.
The airport stands on 30 mega-columns with steel trusses
that creates a roof area of 60,000 SqM.
The columns are placed at 64m c/c length wise and 34m c/c
width wise. The steel structure is cladded with a membrane that allows ample
natural light and helps in energy savings during the day. This creates a
unanimous clear space for passenger circulation.
Aviation refers to all activities involving the
operation of heavier-than-air
aircraft, machines designed for atmospheric flight.
The term also describes the organizations and regulatory bodies as well as the
personnel related with the operation of aircraft and the industries
involved in airplane manufacture, development, and design.
General aviation includes all non-scheduled civil
flying, both private and commercial. Because of the huge range of
activities, it is difficult to cover general aviation with a
simple description — general aviation may include business flights, private aviation,
flight training, ballooning, parachuting, gliding, hang gliding, aerial photography,
foot-launched powered hang gliders, air ambulance, crop dusting, charter
flights, traffic reporting, police air patrols, forest fire fighting, and
many other types of flying. Each country regulates aviation differently,
but typically, general aviation falls under several different types of
regulations depending on whether it is private or commercial and on the type of
equipment involved. The aviation industry consists of six branches: (1)
aircraft manufacturing, (2) general aviation activities, (3) airline operations,
(4) airport operations, (5) aviation support activities, and (6) military aviation
activities. Aviation agencies: The ICAO is one of several regulatory agencies throughout
the world. In the India, the Civil Aviation Department makes regulations concerning
air safety. It establishes the rules that all planes must follow when flying in
the India. One of the agency’s most important jobs is to operate a network of
air route traffic control centres throughout the India and its territories.
Each control centre uses radar and radio communication to help aero planes in
its vicinity follow the airways, or air routes, to which they are assigned.
HISTORY OF INDIAN AVIATION
In several ancient countries, there exist traditional
stories of unknown authorship relating to flying boats and airships. Even in
Ramayana, the great popular Hindu epic, it is mentioned that Lord Ram returned
to Ayodhya from Lanka fan ‘Pushpak Viman’ after defeating and killing Ravana. The
aviation developments in India took place rather late. The first recorded flight
in India was performed by a Frenchman Henri Piquet when he carried mail from
Allahabad to Naini In the year 1911. In the same year, Sir George Lloyd undertook
the organization of air flying between Bombay and Karachi. The air service
between these two cities was purely a government venture and it was established
as a temporary and experimental measure during the winter season with the
object of testing the extent to which air mail service was likely to be used by
the public. As soon as sufficient data regarding its running expenses had been collected,
it was found quite expensive as a commercial concern and hence, it was closed
down. During the next two decades or so, India observed more or less a
complete dull period In the aviation activities. In 1927, the Civil Aviation
Department was established and this organization helped In constructing a few
aerodromes and forming some flying clubs. On December 30, 1929 a regular air
service between Karachi and Delhi was opened under the Imperial Airways
Service. On October 15, 1932, he internal services were started by the Tata
Airways Ltd. It was an effective Indian enterprise which conducted air service
between Karachi and Madras once a week with calls at Ahmedabad, Bombay and
Hyderabad. In 1933, Indian Transcontinental Airways Ltd was formed for conducting
the foreign flights. The civil aviation In India made a great headway between
1933 and 1938. By the end of 1938, 153 aircrafts were registered. To have
control over the air-operating companies, the Air Transport Licensing Board was
established in October, 1946 and after the establishment of this Board, an
all-round development in aviation activities was visible in the country. Within
2 years, the Board granted licenses to 11 air-operating companies. At the time
of independence, the number of air transport companies, which were operating
within and beyond the frontiers of the company, carrying both air cargo and
passengers, was nine. It was reduced to eight, with Orient Airways shifting to
Pakistan. These airlines were: Tata Airlines, Indian National Airways, Air service
of India, Deccan Airways, Ambica Airways, Bharat Airways and Mistry Airways. In
early 1948, a joint sector company, Air India International Ltd., was established
by the Government of India and Air India (earlier Tata Airline) with a capital
of Rs 2 crore and a fleet of three Lockheed constellation aircraft. Its first
flight took off on June 8, 1948 on the Mumbai (Bombay)-London air route. At the
time of its nationalization in 1953, it was operating four weekly services
between Mumbai- London and two weekly services between Mumbai and Nairobi. The
joint venture was headed by J.R.D. Tata, a visionary who had founded the first
India airline in 1932 and had himself piloted its inaugural flight.
GLOSSARY AND TERMS USED:
area of an airport, which is in whole or in part under the jurisdiction of the
Government control Authorities. In areas where the government control rules do
not apply, it is the part of an airport terminal building with immediate access
to the apron.
2.Apron: A defined area on the airside of the terminal
building where aircrafts are parked and all activities associated with the
handling of flights can be carried out.
3.Arriving Passenger: The passenger arriving at the terminal
building by air.
4.Baggage: Articles, effects and personal property that
belongs to the passenger for transport connection with his trip. Unless
otherwise specified, it includes both checked-in and carry on luggage.
5.Baggage checked: Baggage for which airline takes sole
custody and for which a baggage claim tag has been issued.
6.Baggage Claim Area: The place allotted in the terminal
building for the passengers to claim the checked baggage from the airline at
7.Baggage unchecked: Baggage other than checked baggage,
(cabin luggage) such as handbag, Backpack etc.
8.Passenger flow: An established route for passengers within
the airport terminal
9.Boarding of a passenger: Entry of the traveller/passenger
into the aircraft prior to its departure.
10.Canyon: It is a public street in the terminal; it serves
mainly as a means to give passengers a sense of place within a building type
noted for placesless ness.
11.Concessionaire: An individual firm, company or
organization permitted by the airport authority to locate or carry business at the
12.Conveyor system: A moving belt used for the conveyance of
baggage, cargo, mail, stores etc.
13.Customs area: The part of an airport under the direct
jurisdiction of the Customs Authorities.
14.Departing passenger: The passenger departing the terminal
15.Domestic (flight,passenger): Flights or passenger’s
journey which does not load control by the government authorities.
16.Pier: A protrusion extending from the terminal building
to the apron that provides protected access to the aircraft parked in the
17. Flight information board: Information boards/screens
that indicate the status of arrival and or departure times of the aircrafts
with their codes and respective gate numbers.
18.Flow: The movements of passengers, cargo, baggage, or
mail through the airport building and to and from the aircraft.
19.Gate: Point of access to the apron from the terminal.
20.International (flight/passengers): Flights or passengers
whose travel involves the control of government authorities.
21.Curbside: The roadside alignment area for passengers immediately
in front of the passenger terminal entrance
22.Landside: That area of an airport and buildings to which
the non-travelling public has free access.
23.Levels: Floors at different elevations effecting the
separation of passenger flow.
24.Load: Passengers, cargo or mail.
25.Loading Bridge: Also called as aerobridge, is a protected
passageway bridging the distance between the gate at the terminal to the door
of the aircraft.
26.Processing: Handling of passengers, crew, baggage, cargo,
and mail by airlines through their own or government staff.
27.Transfer Passengers: Passengers arriving by one flight
and continuing their onward journey by another flight at the same airport.
28.Transit load: Load(including passengers) arriving and
departing by the same through flight ie. The intended destination being at a
later stage of the flight.
FOR CAPACITY CALCULATIONS:
1.Dwell Time: The time spent by the passenger in a
facilitation area is called dwell time of passenger in that area. This time
includes waiting time in queue, service time and the idle or other time in that
2.Service time: Time taken to process a passenger by the
regulatory agency at a manned counter. This does not include the waiting time
in the queue.
3.Usable area: Usable Area is the area available for the use
of the passengers in a given activity area.This area does not include area
required for passages and corridors.
4.Gross Area: This is the total area of a terminal building
including the area occupied by various offices, stairs, corridors/passage
counters and usable area.
5.Space standard: Space standard may be defined as the
useable area required for comfortable holding of a passenger.
6.Level or Quality of service: The assessment of the
conditions of the operating characteristics of any system of airport facility
at a particular level of demand or user volume. This definition considers both
demand and supply aspects.
7.Capacity: A variable measure of system capability related
to the level of service being provided.
8.Static Capacity: Static capacity is used to describe the
storage potential of a facility/area, and is usually pressed as the number of
passengers, which given area will hold at a given point of time. It is a
function of the usable space available and the level of service provided.
9.Dynamic Capacity: It refers to the maximum processing or
flow rate of passengers through a sub system per unit time i.e. dynamic peak
hour capacity of an area is the number of passengers processed per hour.
10.Sustained capacity: It is used to describe the overall
capacity of a subsystem to accommodate traffic demand over a sustained period
within the space and time standard of a particular level of service. It is thus
a measure of combined dynamic and static capacities of the processors, reservoirs
11.Declared capacity: The limiting capacity and capacities,
in numeric terms on individual facilities and resources, notified to the appropriate
bodies to be used in preparing the flight schedules.
12.Peak: It is the highest concentration of traffic, weather
in terms of aircraft, passengers, or ground access vehicles, that an airport
system has to handle within a particular period of time.
13.Typical peak: It is the maximum level of traffic, lower
than the peak, reached in busy period, at which an acceptable level of service