Sridaran the power wastage and theft. In this

Sridaran KS, Valliappan RM, Shyam
VS, Sundar S (Sri
Krishna college of technology)

Abstract:

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The demand and usage of electricity is high in present
situation. To regulate and conserve the power consumption pre-paid usage plan
for electricity can be used. It can give a remedy for the power wastage and
theft. In this process the number of units for usage is initially bought from
the electricity board depending up on the consumer’s requirements. The unit
usage is monitored periodically using pre-paid metering. The values of voltage,
current, power (kWh) and load factor is uploaded
to the respective consumer accessible webpage. Mobile application is
implemented to generate alert to the consumer’s mobile in case of emergency
like short circuit, theft and fault. The Power control Centre is operated by
the electricity board for monitoring and controlling purpose. Communication
between the user and Supplier is achieved by means of server website using IoT.
Two websites are needed in this prototype. One webpage is for monitoring the
readings of readings and another website for prepaid actions.  By this process the user can calculative
manage the power demands depending upon the consumer’s requirements. Overall module is used to develop an automated system
by which monthly power consumption will be calculated. At the same time the
resulting unit will be sent to a Power Control Center for further calculation
and the updated data’s can be received by the consumers at any point of time.

 

INTRODUCTION:

 

The supply system of electricity in nearly all the countries
were designed many years back and the old operation scenario is continuing till
date. This Method of system is prone to various losses and theft during its
operation. This method of operation may not be suitable for the future
distribution process. Many of the sectors like industries, laboratories,
communication sectors, domestic energy consumption and private enterprises are
the predominant power consuming units in prevalence. Till the invention and
improvement process in the generation, distribution and protection sectors in
electricity board. From Research beginning to nowadays notable changes in
electricity metering techniques. Energy meter is a Measuring device that
employs calculation of the Quantity of electrical energy consumed by electrical
appliances in business, residential, or any electrical drives. They are
measured in terms of kilowatt hour. Kilowatt hour is defined as the 1 kilowatt
of energy utilized in an hour or consumption of 3,600,000 joules.

 

It operates by Calculating the intermediate voltage (volts) and
instantaneous current values (amperes). On multiplying of these two parameters
can provide the value of the Simultaneous electric power (watts) value, which
is to be integrated with time can give the total Quantity of electrical energy
consumed in the given duration. Advancement in the metering system can be
obtained by using smart energy metering system. Present data, statistics……… If
this advancement is used in right sector depend on the consumers, can
facilitate more thing rather than recording the value of power consumption or a
supporting app or webpage to support energy utilized by users. Online bill
processing, automated meter reading(AMR), detection of level of energy consumption,
data processing and also provides early alerts blackouts. A Smart energy meter
Provides a facility of collecting the electricity consumption bill from the
consumers previously to its consumption. The prepaid meter from name itself we
know it has inbuilt recharging capability and communication of information with
the pertaining to details of consumer’s consumption

 

COMPONENTS:

 

Energy
meter IC (IC ADE7751):

This analog device brings a solution to the Issues faced by the
upcoming generation smart meter. This measures the active power(kWh) RMS,
reactive power(kVAR), other components of power and the power system quality
with high accuracy rate. It is employed to Calculate the reading in the single
and polyphase meters in the industries and energy controlling applications.
This energy meter is a combination of fixed-functional controller with digital
signal processor with analog-to-digital converter which is employed to perform
critical Calculations and ease for usage.

 

 

The current transformer and potential transformers are employed
in this setup. The supply power is given by jack. Current transformer is always
connected in series to mains and Potential transformer is always connected in
parallel to the main supply respectively. 
CT is employed to regulate the level of current that is allowed to the
energy meter ICADE7751, so that it can operate in a perfect condition. This IC
can perform sensing operation of the current value up to 40mA. The measuring
pins in the IC are 4 and 6. The potential transformer is employed to step down
higher voltage levels in the primary side into low voltage level in the winding
of secondary side which enables the meter to Calculate the appropriate reading.
It can convert 220V into 220mV. The energy meter can operate up to the level of
660mV.  A resistance of valve one kilo
ohms is employed to reduce the flow of maximum voltage into the energy meter.
The process of holding the voltage in the input pin is performed with the help
of a capacitor. The output is obtained from the pin 22 of the meter. The value
is given as input to the microprocessor for the further operations to occur.

 

Energy
Calculation Using IC:

The energy meter IC calculations are depending upon the
frequency impulse produced by it.

 It is rated as 1600
impulse/kWh.

If 1600 frequency impulses are produced by the meter then it is
exactly-equal to 1 kWh.

Then 1impulse of electricity consumed =1/1600=0.000625 kWh.

 

PROCESSOR:

Arduino YUN (ATMEGA32u4) is an appropriate and well-designed
board it acts as a interfacing medium where the device connected with internet
(internet of things). It combines the properties of Linux and Arduino.it is
built up of ATmega32u4 and Atheros AR9331 ICs.

 

 

It is built up with several components like ethernet
connectivity, a USB-A port, micro SD card slot, 20 DI/O pins, a 16 MHz crystal
oscillator, 3 reset buttons, micro USB connections and an icsp header. This
setup can be programmed from AR9331. Using YUN interface, a sketch can be
uploaded to it. The programming in board will be in the port menu of the
Arduino IDE when the connection is made to the same network. AR9331 will be
received some sketch, and the linux acts as a programming language whole
programming done in Linux os. Main aim of choosing this board is it contains
inbuilt Wi-Fi and Ethernet port it fully IoT Compatible Board. YUN provides
webpage for monitoring purpose from any location by using internet.

 

SENSOR:

 

VOLTAGE
SENSOR:

Voltage sensor based on the working principle of capacitor coupling.
Two conductors or plates connected in parallel it forms capacitor which are
isolated by a non-conducting material called dielectric material. The whole
circuit connection is complete but it does not have any wiring connections.

 

It is because the electrons are repelled or attracted depend on
the charges in the opposite electrode plates when a AC source is connected to
it. The circuit is made complete because of the electric field present in
capacitor which have two plates are parallelly connected. All electrical device
has a stray capacitance present in it which we normally don’t realize in the
reality.

But it is act as an individual component in the motor drives.

 

CURRENT
SENSOR:

Measuring the current value is the primary task in most of the
instrumentation and also in many power systems. The operation like protection
and control of the whole system can be achieved only by measuring the current
value.

 

It also facilitates the functions like monitoring and
performance improvement of the whole system. Here the current sensing element
in this setup is current sensor which is employed to find out the current value
in the system and convert it into a measurable output voltage. This voltage
value is completely based on to the real current value which is detected by the
system. There are different methods of current sensing are 1) direct current
method and 2) indirect current method of sensing. The direct sensing method is
based in ohms law and the indirect sensing method is based on faraday’s and
ampere’s law.

 

RELAY:

Relay is a switching device which is electrically operated by
the processor. Most of the relays are operated mechanically depend on the
electromagnetic principle.

 

 

 

It is normally employed when a circuit should be controlled by a
low-power consumed signal or only one signal. They are employed as amplifier in
telegraph circuits which has long distance connectivity. They usually repeat
the signal from a one primary circuit and re-transmitted action happens in to
another circuit. The logical operations in telephone call connecting center and
past generations computers are executed depend on the operations of relay.

Automatic meter reading:

In recent trends automatic
meter reading is a group of collected data of data, diagnosis and data status
where collected automatically without man power. A group of collected data’s is
uploaded to the server database further process like billing problem trouble
shooting and analyzing. This technology reduces the Electric supply providers
to frequently visit the location to obtain the meter values.

 

Main advantages of using
this method to depict the real-time
values not the estimated values. The frequent information and billing analysis
combination is provided to the suppliers and consumers to generate and regulate
the electricity consumption. Automatic meter is a pure electrical or
electromechanical device it
stores the utilization of electric supply in frequent interval of time and
transmitting the collected data to database for screening and billing. It also gives two-sided
information sharing meter and energy control center.

 

Smart meter collects data
and sharing information in remote locations. Architecture of Advanced meter is
differing from a traditional Automatic meter reading, it provides two-sided
information sharing. The communication between network and meter is provided
mostly in the method of wired type connection some advanced meters have wireless connection.

 

On-site Automatic meter reading:

This method employs meter
along with monitoring equipment’s or data collecting attached with the external
probe or wand. Meter readings are automatically collected by Keeping the probe
closer to the induction coil which present inside the system with touchpad
while pressing the button the interrogative signal is send from probe to system
attached with touchpad to attain the
meter data’s.

 

The device which has some
software embed to compare the actual serial number presented in both database
and meter if it is matched it stores the meter data’s like Voltage, current and
power for further billing process. The primary disadvantage of this method is
the technicians has to visit the meter location to frequent number of times.
So, it is called On-site AMR. In UttraPradesh similar to this method is
employed for collecting meter data’s in both household and industrial units.

 

Radio Frequency AMR:

Radio-Frequency signal is
the transmitting method for meters this method eliminates human errors and it
provides accurate readings. Even this method also some cons, because it also
requires some technicians to maintain optimal performance of meter.

 

Radio frequency AMR has
many types most common one is Monitoring equipment’s with mobile network. In
this method RF systems are employed namely one sided and two-sided RF systems.
It has RF bands license granted and not granted in two-way system otherwise known
as wake-up system. Signal from radio transceiver sends the meter number of
particular meter having transmitter. This system helps to bring a meter from
immobile state to running state for transfer its data. The electric meter is
attached with transceiver and it consists of meter reader also attached with
the transceiver. It performs both functions such as send and receive signal
between themselves one-way system is also called as Bubble-up system the values
get updated in every few seconds by signal broadcasting method. Receiver is a
reading device and AMR meter is transmitting device if it is a one-way
communication system means data is transmitted from AMR meter and it is
received to the meter reader. Hybrid of one-way and two-way system is possible,
by using this hybrid system reading values in one-way communication and
controlling function happens in two-way communication. This method eliminates
the significance of meter reader to enter the property or home to locate and
open an underground meter pit. By using this technique, the speed of meter
data’s the values can be increased and it also saves money. It has least chance
of misspelling the meter data’s because it ignores the meter access from locked
out. The RF technology is and follow some regulation to use in some
countries.  For example, in India the
lower RF for transmitting its signal to a device is not appearing at a free of
cost.

 

AMR
using Mobile Van:

In this method the recording device is installed in a vehicle
when a reading device starts collecting the meter data’s automatically while
the meter equipment runs the vehicle. The meter does not produce normal
operation to read the meter in definite order until all the meters are read
their data after only it drives the service area in wireless meter reading it
normally consists of a palmtop or computer software RF transmitter, receiver
and vehicle with external antennas. WI-FI technology is also implemented to
obtain the data in this system.

 

Power
line communication:

 Usually power is transmitted
in power line cables in this method power along with electronic data
transferred via powerlines and it is drive return to the substation. It has
central computer relayed action happens in utility control center. This method
is considered as an immobile network system. This technique is a distribution
type it has inbuilt main system which maintains constant delivery of power
supply. This type of communication is majorly used for electric supply reading.

 

Prepaid
energy meter:

To reduce cost wise,
efficient operation, to be more compatible and reliable and innovate the
solution methods prepaid energy meter is introduced. User previously pay some
level of amount to the
supplier to how much he consumed and he utilized those prepaid supply until ii
fully exhausted. It is main pros of using this prepaid system user should know the limit of
consumption. If the consumer consumption reaches the preset limit the supply is cut off by
relay, by using this technology we facing some issues. On other way accept this
technology of prepaid metering, they claim benefits from both suppliers and
consumers. Because they provide some rules and regulation to consumers to efficient use of
this technology helps to improve their budget management. While it is
implemented in firms to reduce financial cost and also provide operation cost.

 

The primary thing of using
this technology is to install the service meters to consumer’s location here
the consumption of energy is done (locations like residential houses and
commercial shops). These types of meters otherwise called as two gang type. It has
two major unit’s user
interaction unit and ampere measuring unit. Main function of interaction unit
is consumer can interact with the service meter implanted on building. User interaction unit is
otherwise called as metering unit it serves as intelligent component that
records cut-off value and consumption details. These are the two major
parameters to operate the meter either in steady state or in cut-off the supply.
Another important component in system called as credit dispensing unit is
placed, where the electric energy is supplied the consumer can brought the
required amount of electricity. This is the secondary component of this
module is a supporting device that linking the consumer unit to supplier unit and connects the various
outlets of supplier management

 

Web-Enabled
AMR:

            The availability of the Broad-band is at a small fee and
is less complex, the web-enabled AMR system is being developed in a very fast manner.
In this technique the electric meter is enabled with net so the data that is
useful from the meter is uploaded in a periodic way to the site, then the
billing job and the analysis is performed automatically. In this prototype
transmission with consumer and the meter is achieved by means of IoT. Now a
days Digitalization is recent trend in India so everyone use internet, in our
project is internet acts as communication medium.

 

We brought one server for monitor and prepaid action. Data form
the server webpage gets uploaded to cloud, every 5 seconds cloud gets refreshed
value gets updated. It could be retrieved from consumer accessible webpage.

 

 FLOW CHART:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Working:

Initially in the working process starts from providing the Pin
value to be zero. The value obtained from current and the voltage sensors is
used to determine the power in energy meter IC. The power value is summed until
the Pin value reaches to the 75% of the pre-set value. If the value condition
fails, Pin value gets summed to the previous power value. If the condition is
satisfied a signal is generated and the operation shifts to recharging mode. If
the consumer desires to recharge, the pre-set value can be changed. The changed
pre-set value is added up with the 25% or remaining of the old pre-set value.
This value replaces the pre-set value in the condition set in the above step.
After this step the metering begins from the initial condition by setting the
Pin value as zero. This operation occurs in the controlling URL section. If the
consumer is not preferring to recharge the setting, the metering runs until Pin
value exceeds the pre-set value. After this relay is shifted to the normal open
mode of operation. Then automatically the supply gets dis-connected. The relay
is shifted to the normal closed mode only when the recharging is done by the
consumer in the webserver.

 

Overview Block
Diagram Working

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Communication
section: In communication system the receiving of the power from energy
suppliers is managed completely in energy conditioning center. The metering completely relies on the pre-paid metering
system. The obtained values are then sent to the server using internet In
prepaid metering the required units of power is achieved from the consumer from
his requirement for metering purpose.

 

Energy
management system: In this process the total load in the consumer side is
forecasted. Based on these results the power required for the consumer is
estimated. The estimated value is set as the pre-set value in the server. The
processor in the prototype uploads the data to the server using IoT.

 

Consumer
accessible system: This section consists of webpage and android application. The
webpage is made up of two URL. One for the controlling and other for monitoring
purpose. The controlling side is entirely for energy suppliers and the
monitoring is for the consumer monitoring purpose. The android app is utilised
for remote monitoring of the reading for the consumers. This whole system
operates with the work in the webserver.

 

SIMULATION:

The whole proteus simulation explains the operation of the smart
meter. The components utilized in setup are control unit, reset unit, ammeter,
voltmeter and meter for the power factor. These units are joined to the atmega8
controller. The working of the reset unit is to clear the processor data and
begin it from the same initial state.

 

 

Control unit is required to control the supply to the load. The
perfect rated relay is used to make the switching operation work in appropriate
way. The current and voltage values are measured using voltmeter and ammeter
respectively. The meter for the power factor detects the value of the power
factor that is used for measuring of the consumed power value in the later
operations.

The Oscilloscope and the Virtual terminal is required to show
current, voltage wave forms and power, current values respectively.

 

OUTPUT:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

A new architecture of Energy management system for industries
using IoT communication has revisited the requirement for the domestic energy
management for efficiency in electricity consumption. Consuming electrical
energy efficiently results in reducing electricity bills and minimizing the
power consumption. In IoT where there is wireless communication and better
industrial automation, effective system can be designed. This proposed
methodology has discussed the schemes where different energy scheduling, prices
are provided to get economic and social advantages. Prepayment systems is an
innovative solution to the difficulty in affordability of the services in
utility. It is a well-established system in Africa and Europe, the usage of
such mechanisms remains controversial. Among the arguments some of which that
are in favor are the pros regarding the low cost of the arrears, cost of
running, charges of the service that is provided and the better resource
allocation that it implies for users. The cons in the prepaid metering is its
high cost of technology and the self-cut off connection for the users with low
income.