Speaking pronunciation • how to produce talk in

Speaking
requires knowledge of linguistic, sociolinguistic, discourse and strategic
features. Richards (1990) lists out
specific features that are particularly useful for learners:

•        
how to use conversation for both transactional and
interactional purposes

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•        
how to produce both short and long turns in
conversation

•        
strategies for managing turn-taking in conversation,
including taking a turn, holding a turn, and relinquishing a turn

•        
strategies for opening and closing conversations

•        
how to initiate and respond to talk on a broad range
of topics, and how to develop and maintain talk on these topics

•        
how to use both a casual style of speaking and a
neutral or more formal style

•        
how to use conversation in different social settings
and for different kinds of social encounters, such as on the telephone and in
informal and formal social gatherings

•        
strategies for repairing trouble spots in
conversation, including communication breakdowns and comprehension problems

•        
how to maintain fluency in conversation through
avoiding excessive pausing, breakdowns, and errors of grammar or pronunciation

•        
how to produce talk in a conversational mode, using a
conversational register and syntax

•        
how to use conversational fillers and small talk

•        
how to use
conversational routines (p. 79–80)

       Nunan  (1996) claims that one can apply the bottom-up
and top-down distinction to speaking. The bottom up approach to speaking
suggests that speakers start with the smallest unit of language, i.e.
individual sounds, and move through mastery of words and sentences to
discourse. The top-down view, on the other hand, suggests that speakers start
with the larger chunks of language, which are embedded in meaningful contexts,
and use their knowledge of these contexts to comprehend and use correctly the
smaller elements of language.According to Nunan (1996),
the ability of speaking involves the following:

·        
The ability to articulate
phonological features of the language comprehensibly.

·        
Mastery of stress,
rhythm, intonation pattern;

·        
An acceptable degree of fluency;

·        
Transactional and
interpersonal skills;

·        
Skills in taking short
and long speaking turns;

·        
Skills in the management
of interaction;

·        
Skills in negotiating
meaning;

·        
Conversational listening
skills

·        
Skills in knowing about
and negotiating purposes for conversations;

·        
Using appropriate
conversational formula and fillers.(p32)