Something your body, your hairs on your body,

Something that you can see and it has its own way of defending you from getting a disease examples of the barriers- your skin is the main physical barrier because it protects you from pathogens entering your body, your hairs on your body, for example, your nose cilia, hair on your skin these will block some pathogens entrance to try to enter your cut or scab.


Chemical Defence

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In the chemical defence your mucus, tears and saliva have enzymes which break down the cell wall. These will capture the pathogen ( Bacteria and Viruses) within the chemical defence, once it’s captured by your mucus or saliva it will engulf the pathogen which that destroys the pathogen. Your tears protect your eyes it helps by keeping them moist and washes out dust or other things that went to your eyes this helps you from getting an infection in your eyes. Also, saliva cleans microbes from your teeth.


Non-specific responses

The non-specific response gets alerted whenever the bodies tissues are damaged, it releases histamines and prostaglandins which will increase the amount of blood supply, attacks pathogens, clots formation isolating the damage from the other parts of the body by inflammation, it expands in the area with white blood cells to take control of the pathogens and repairs the skin. Phagocytosis always eats pathogens they always look for cells and it doesn’t matter what type of pathogen it is. can easily go through your blood vessel wall towards the surrounding tissue and towards the pathogen.


Specific response

Different for each type of pathogen, antigens are chemicals in the cell membrane normal cell and viruses. Specific responses start with the detection of antigens. Most pathogens have a different antigen. It has a slower response, specific to each pathogen, it takes the body a while till it figures out what pathogen has attacked the body. Plasma cells secrete antibodies and plasma cells derived from b lymphocytes.



Advantages and disadvantages of the defence mechanisms


Physical barriers


-Your hair will block the entrance from pathogens to enter your skin or from the scab. Your cilia in your nose will trap the pathogen from getting in your nose and through your body.


-you might have a skin disease, rash or even allergic reaction to something which will itch your skin and could scratch it hard and it will make you start bleeding which pathogens could go in through that scab.


Chemical defence


– your mucus, saliva traps the pathogens in them which will break/destroy the pathogen with the enzymes.


It’s not always 100% that your mucus and saliva will destroy the pathogen or engulf it. It can easily go through it.


Non-specific responses


-it prevents the spreading of damaging cells to close by tissues

-phagocytosis always eats the pathogen


-still can go through the physical barrier


specific responses


-plasma cells secrete antibodies



-slower response

-specific to each pathogen

what is a vaccine?

Vaccine can protect you from getting a serious disease by vaccination. The vaccine is usually made of dead or inactive pathogens. It triggers your body’s natural immune response to attack the pathogen that you have caught. We use vaccines to protect ourselves for future if we get the disease our body will be alerted straight away and will destroy the pathogen, and it wouldn’t spread in our body and that means our bodies will be immune from that disease.


The vaccine will inject small amounts dead or inactive pathogen into your body. The antigens in the vaccine will alert the white blood cells to produce antibodies consumes the antigen without the chance you getting the disease. Once you have been vaccinated your body will be immune from that disease. If the disease gets in your body it will respond quickly and produce antibodies.


For example if your child gets measles he could spread the disease to his friends in school but in the developing years scientists have made a vaccine to stop measles and its called the MMR vaccine which most children around the UK have been injected so they don’t get the disease and the disease has been wiped for sometimes now. With the vaccination that has been developed.


Case study data- vaccination

As you can see in the data that vaccination wasn’t trusted by the citizens in the UK around 1998 to 2000 which caused over 200,000 people in the UK aged 65 and over to get influenza around the winter season.


Only 41.8% in 1998-1999 got vaccinated and also in 1999-2000, 43.8% got vaccinated that percentage is really low, if you see in the peak number in the data both of them had over 200,000 people got ill from influenza.


As the years have gone pass the percentage of people who got vaccinated has risen which fewer people got influenza around the winter season. You can see this in the data 2002-2003 only 25,000 people got influenza same in 2007-2008. This has shown us a remarkable change has happened over the years which people now are getting vaccinated. That is 73.5% of over 65 that have been vaccinated.


But in 2009-2010 the percentage has moved up 72.4% which a lot of people have been vaccinated but over 100,000 people got influenza as it seems strange but in that year the deadly flu was about called swine flu which came from pigs and scientist and doctors had no clue on how this disease spread around the UK. That’s why the peak number is over 100,000 people who caught the flu even some of the people who got vaccinated.


So over the years, the pattern has changed from high to low and back to high again which was very strange.



Vascular screening

Screening programmes are designed to spot diseases that could grow and give serious damage to your body in the future. The main reason why everyone gets a screening programme to make sure they don’t have the that serious disease and if they do, they can quickly appoint a surgery to take the disease out or destroy it quickly.


In this report, I am going to explain about vascular screening also known as atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a serious condition which could lead to block your arteries and clog it with fatty substances also known as plaques.


The plaques in the arteries become gird and cramped which it restricts the blood flow and oxygen to supply to your body organs that need it the most. And this could increase the risk of potential blood clots and it could possibly block the flow of your blood towards your heart and brain.


If you have this serious disease and don’t take it seriously it could lead to heart attacks or strokes this condition can be preventable by having a healthy lifestyle. It will help reduce the serious problems occurring.


Vascular screening programme has been designed to stop blood vessels blockages or the build-up of plaques. The screening programme gives good shots of what is going on in the blood vessels.


In 2012 the stats for atherosclerosis for men was 5,367 and for women, it was 4,790 the total of people having atherosclerosis in the UK was 10,157.



– the vascular screening will show if there’s any problem in your blood vessels.

– economic benefits.

-you’ll know you may need a quick operation

-simple and safe to use at anytime



-expensive machines which will cost the NHS a lot of money to use it and people may not like how they are spending a lot of money on useless technology.

-not 100% accurate to make sure if you have the serious condition.



Screening newborn babies

For the newborn baby screen, it helps us to see if the baby is healthy or has a disease that could harm its organs and to cure it immediately. Just a simple blood tests will help the doctors to see if the baby has a disease. Parents may think this is useless and they don’t want to see their baby in the hospital. This process could be a bit pricey for parents at the same time it will help to see if there any problems with their child ‘s health.


Screening in pregnancy

in pregnancy screening this helps to see if the baby has a serious condition e.g. down syndrome this can help parents to know what to do if they want to give abortion or they might keep the baby but if they keep the baby with the condition they would have to spend a lot of money to look after the baby because of the stuff that requires for the child is important. Not only that most religions don’t like abortion which is a big problem in society.


Cancer screening

Checking your body for cancer before you have symptoms, making sure that you can screen appointment regularly may find breast and cervical cancers early when the treatments are likely to work best. Expensive machines to screen for cancer. Not always accurate that you have cancer.