Educated Indians who believed in these ideas began to attack irrational social and religious practices of the time.
Throughout the nineteenth century, reformers from all over India contributed to a social awakening. Although they belonged to different regions, there was an underlying unity in their purposes and methods of work.
All the reformers campaigned mainly against irrational religious practices, and social evils involving caste discrimination and cruelty towards women. To achieve their aims, they all promoted education, spread awareness through journals and pamphlets, and tried to revive the positive aspects of Indian culture.
In the second half of the nineteenth century, reform movements acquired an all-India character, especially as the press played a major role in the spread of new ideas.
The movements aroused a sense of cultural unity and prepared the Indians to protest against colonial rule. Let us now learn a little more about the contributions of some great reformers.