The Arthasastra makes legal provision to safeguard the life and property of citizen against encroachment, against defamation, against assault, against an attempt on life, protection of property, against liberty of a person, protection against atrocities of a government official.

The general conditions of law and order then prevailing in the country as a whole are thus reported by Megasthenes. In commenting in the rarity of law-suits among Indians was evidence of their frank dealing he goes so far to say that “Indian has never been convicted of lying” (Erag. 35). He also says, “Indians are not litigious. Witness’s seals are unnecessary when a man makes a deposit. He acts in trust. Their houses are usually unguarded”.

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Strabo says, “Megasthetnese who was in the camp of Sandrokottos (Chandragupta), which consisted of 400,000 men, says, that he found that the thefts reported on any one day did not exceed the value of 200 drachmae.

The Arthasastra (IV. 8 & 10) has two chapters dealing with various forms of torture and mutilation of limbs but treats the provision for mutilation as a dead letter by the substitutes prescribed in the shape of fines in lieu of such physical penalties.