Short Essay on Bauxite in India

It is not a mineral but an aggregate chiefly of gibbsite, boehmite and a little of Kaolinite. Aluminium is produced from bauxite in two stages (i) bauxite is refined and converted into alumina (aluminium oxide) by chemical process; (ii) aluminium metal is obtained by the electrolysis of alumina.

Extensive deposits of bauxite occur capping about half a dozen peaks including Shevaroyan and Sholaradu in the Shevaroy hills. Reserves of recoverable bauxite of all grades have been estimated from Madurai, Nilgiris and Salem districts. The production was reported from the districts of Nilgiri and Salem; Plateau region of the Palni and Kodaikanal hills in the Madurai districts.

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Production and Distribution:

The total in situ reserves are 3.076 million tonnes. About 84 per cent of the in situ reserve is of metallurgical grade. The conditional resources of bauxite are about 5, 99,780 tonnes. In addition, prospective resources are placed at 90 million tonnes.

Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Jharkhand are the principal states where bauxite deposits are located. Major reserves are concentrated in the East Coast Bauxite deposits of Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.

Bauxite is mined at a number of places in India. The main bauxite producing states are Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Goa and Uttar Pradesh. The Production of bauxite at 12.64 million tonnes in 2011-12, followed by Maharashtra 17% Chattishgarh 17% Jharkhand 14% and Gujarat.

Largest Reserves:

Odisha, A.P., M P., Maharashtra, Gujarat, Bihar, Jharkhand.

Madhya Pradesh:

Bauxite is found in the Amarkantak plateau, Maikala hills and Balaghat districts.

Andhra Pradesh:

Bauxite deposits occur in Eastern Ghats of Vishakhapatnam, East Godavari and West Godavari districts. Bauxite has been discovered in the Anantgiri plateau.

Jharkhand:

Extensive deposits of bauxite ore are found in the plateau of Ranchi, Palamau, Gumla and Lohardaga districts. The areas lying west of Chandwa-Lohardaga- Gumla roads possess high grade bauxite. The important deposits are located at Bagrupahar, Seradang, Pabhrapat, Jardapahar, Maidanpat and Mandnapat.

Maharashtra:

Some of the largest deposits of bauxite in India occur in the plateau of Udgiri, Dhangarvadi, Ratnagiri etc. in the Kolhapur district. These occur in laterite capping the plateau basalts the Deccan traps. Other occurrences have been reported from the districts of Colaba, Thane, Ratnagiri, Satara and Pune.

Odisha:

Bauxite deposits in Orissa Occur as lenses and pockets in the laterite capping the Khondalite district. Bauxite deposits also occur in the districts of Bahlimali Parbat, Sundargarh, Bolangir and Sambalpur, Panchapatmalli hills of Korapur, Kutrumali.