Research puzzles, and filling in letters to













Report- PSYS 423


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the opportunity to sit down with someone older than me and learning about new
aspects on life gave me such a great advantage on learning new ways of
exploring social, emotional, and cognitive changes over time. As you grow
older, things change. She explained how forgetful she has become over time and
how much that impacts her.

forgetful has caused her to lose a lot of her memory and affected her cognitive
functioning. Things are harder to remember and when she is at social
gatherings, she feels less valued because her memory has faded. She talked
about how she worked on keeping her memory active by doing crossword puzzles, and
filling in letters to guess a word. These changes are completely normal in
aging because everyone will go through this whether it is more extreme or less.
Memory tends to decrease when you grow older because your mind is not working
as much as before. It is very normal for people growing older to lose some of
their memory and be forgetful quite often. Losing your memory does not mean
that you are impaired, or that your life completely changes. Sure, you will
need an extra hand for remembering certain things like taking your medication,
remembering birthdays, and remembering the trivial things. You may be viewed
different to some people, but in the end, you are still the same person. People
may believe that you need more help than you need only by judging you. You will
always be the same person.

she went through life, she made a lot of mistakes, but no one is perfect. She
learned over the years that being humble changed her. She went through some
dark times where she felt like she wouldn’t be able to escape. She carried so
much weight on her shoulders and so much guilt. She felt like a burden and that
completely drained her. She sat there and told me that as she went through
these times all that she needed was God and her family and that’s what turned
her around. She learned to stop holding grudges and to stop being mad for
something she cannot change. She put it all in God’s hand knowing that he could
handle the rest. This socially changed her. She used to block everyone out and
stay at home. She wouldn’t go out in public or talk to anyone. She just shut
down. This caused social functioning and cognitive functioning to change
dramatically and become affected. It impacted her state of mind and changed the
way she was living and how she stopped interacting.

I brought up society and how different while she was growing up compared to now
she had a lot to say. The first thing that came to her mind was technology. She
explained how much it has changed over the years and how much the world has
gotten worse because of it. Having a cell phone ruined society. When she was
growing up, there were very few people who had a cell phone. You had a house
phone if you were lucky. If you wanted to see someone then you went out to
social gatherings or to the store, etc. Children played outside until dark and
now a four-year-old can operate an I-phone with no help. This shows how
dependent you can be on something and to some people they couldn’t live without
a phone. It is truly unfortunate that you can pay more attention to your phone
than your own child.

 That says a lot about society and a lot about
spirituality. No one expresses themselves as they did back then. During her
times she explained how everyone was honest and upfront about everything. They
stayed true to their self and valued their beliefs. It is hard to say that in
this time. People now are always defensive, uptight, and they play a certain
role in order to get by. This can be considered non-normal aging because all of
this is affected by our environment and how much it can influence you.

the article by Wendy V. Parr and Richard Siegert, they did a study about
younger and older adults and the difference of their memory either due to lack
of ability or lack of effort. They took 200 people, 100 young and 100 older
adults and rated memory failures in targets. The first hypothesis concerning
the subject age was supported. Parr & Siegert supported that older subjects
rated lack of effort as a probable cause of memory failure and more often than
young subjects, but there was no main effect of subject age. Older subjects
were influenced by target age than younger subjects, giving lower ratings than
did younger subjects for lack of ability when the target person was 20 years,
but giving higher ratings than did younger subjects when the target was 80
years of age according to Parr & Siegert. The second hypothesis was
confirmed. With increasing target age, lack of effort ratings decreased in
frequency and lack of ability ratings increased (Parr & Siegert, 1993).
Reverting back to my interviewee, even though she tried to keep her mind active
to decrease the number of chances of her memory being impaired, she still
lacked the ability because she was getting older and it was harder for her to
remember things that she used to be able to do back then.

my interviewee participated in this study she would have been in the older
group and the outcome from her study would be that with increasing age,
“forgetful episodes” were rated less likely to be caused by lack of effort but
with lack of ability. For this study, there was mixed design used with subject
age and subject sex. They used 16 memory failure vignettes, eight of them were
LTM failures and eight of them were VLTM failures which are types of memory.
According to this article, it shows that with increasing age, the lack of
ability is the cause of memory impairment. It is possible for someone older to
live a normal life depending on how good their memory is still intact. It is
different for every person and some experience memory loss more often and more
times than others.

article I can support with my evidence is the article by Ryan et al. This
article is similar to the previous one with younger and older adults with
memory. This study was also examined in 2 vignette-based studies. Study one
there was 75 older adults and 78 young adults who evaluated forgetful older
targets in their 70’s who used their age, lack of ability, lack of effort, or
the situation to explain forgetting. In study 2, 105 older adults and 105 young
adults evaluated forgetful targets with no specific age given in 4 excuse conditions
(age, ability, situation, and no excuse) (Ryan et al., 2002). The purpose of
this article was to explore the implications of appealing to one’s age in
accounting for a memory failure (Ryan et al., 2002). I noticed a lot of things
when I was interviewing this lady. I noticed that even though her memory was
not the best, I could see that it was lack of ability and not lack of effort. I
noticed how she had to stop several times to think and try to remember certain
memories before she could tell me.

results showed that the age and ability excuses were higher ratings on social
fluency than did the effort excuse, with the ability excuse being rated more
highly than the situation excuse. Age and ability were very similar according
to Ryan et al. I feel that my interviewee would have a different outcome to
this study in certain aspects. This study is much more detailed, and I believe
that she would have used her age and the situation to explain forgetting
because she doesn’t want to seem that she is impaired and that she cannot
function properly.

& Krause discuss in their article about religious change and how it has
been studied from the perspectives of both individual development and societal
progress. The results indicate that both individual aging processes and changes
in the material environment may influence changes in religious involvement.
Talking with this lady explained how the older she got the more she became
closer to God and learning to be in her own environment allowed her to make
that change for herself. It allowed to be more spiritual in ways she felt
relief from.

lady I interviewed would have shown that older age was associated with greater
personal and organizational religious involvement. She explained to me that she
had always been somewhat religious and always went to church with her family
but as got older she understood a lot more about life and she wanted to live.
That caused her to become more religious and move closer to God. The way
society is today definitely changed how she feels about her relationship with
God because she talked about how society is doomed and has become so damaged
that there is no way to completely fix it.

et al., 2012 explained the attitudes of the elderly toward information and technology.
While I asked about how society has changed and what was the one thing changed
drastically, it was technology. Back in her younger years, they had no
technology. They didn’t have smart phones, lab-tops, Bluetooth devices, etc.
So, growing up they did things more old-fashioned and now in this day and time,
technology has completely taken over the world. She talked about society is
doomed because everyone has become so dependent on technology and that one day
it will crash, and everyone will lose everything.

goal of this article was to understand the attitudes of the elderly towards
information and communication technologies in the context of a training course
about the utilization of a digital platform (Gonzalez et al., 2012). I believe
that in time, my interviewee would learn to have a more positive attitude
towards the building of innovative technologies. She would eventually learn to
have better confidence in knowing more about technology, but it would take her
time to get used to the fact that society has changed. The lady explained about
behind she is on learning all of the new types of technologies. She recently
just got a smart phone and is still currently learning how to use it correctly.
She still doesn’t know how to use a lab-top nor does she know about all of the latest
changes in society and how it keeps growing. She is able to live a normal life,
but she will struggle when it comes to a lot of things because everything is
going digital.

to aging, everyone goes through different changes. The lady I interviewed went
through several changes like cognitive functioning, social functioning,
spirituality and more. She exclaimed how forgetful she is and how her memory
isn’t near as good as it used to be. It is harder for her to remember the simple
things like what to get at the store, to remembering to call someone back at a
different time. She went through challenging times where she felt socially
awkward because she was the older one at work or she was the odd one out, so
she felt less competent around younger people. They would judge her and that
caused her to shut down because she was afraid of embarrassing herself in
public when she around other people. She also learned to be humbler and learn
to let go of things. She learned to accept herself the way she was and if
someone didn’t appreciate that then she moved on. She got closer to her
religion and allowed God to put her on a better path and to become a better
person and learn to forgive the people who belittled her all of her life.

changes I discussed in this report supports the answers I have from the lady I
interviewed. Most of her impairments that she is having are due to aging. She
is still normal in all aspects but being forgetful which everyone is at some
point no matter the age. Most changes are influenced by their environment and
the answers I received from her show that her environment caused her change
over the time. She is still able to live independently, and she loves that she
still can do everything on her own and not rely on someone or be dependent on
them. She does expect her two children to help a little more as she grows
older. Everyone in life goes through the process of aging. Some experience more
than others and that is okay. We are still learning how each process works for
different individuals. Each psychological system changes over time because we
are learning new ways with better technology on how to understand the cognitive
and psychological process as you age.


W. V., & Siegert, R. (1993). Adults’ conceptions of everyday memory
failures in others: Factors that mediate the effects of target age. Psychology
And Aging, 8(4), 599-605. doi:10.1037/0882-7974.8.4.599

E. B., Bieman-Copland, S., Kwong See, S. T., Ellis, C. H., & Anas, A. P.
(2002). Age excuses: Conversational management of memory failures in older
adults. The Journals Of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences And
Social Sciences, 57(3), P256-P267. doi:10.1093/geronb/57.3.P256

R. D., & Krause, N. (2015). Aging, social developmental, and cultural
factors in changing patterns of religious involvement over a 32-year period: An
age–period–cohort analysis of 80 countries. Journal Of Cross-Cultural
Psychology, 46(8), 979-995. doi:10.1177/0022022115597066

A., Ramírez, M. P., & Viadel, V. (2012). Attitudes of the elderly toward
information and communications technologies. Educational Gerontology, 38(9),
585-594. doi:10.1080/03601277.2011.595314