Reported presence of plastid-bound oxalic acid oxidase in

Reported constituents on are pinitol,
betacyanine, flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids. 
Study showed the presence of plastid-bound oxalic acid oxidase in the
leaves. Studies have isolated flavonoids, phenolic compounds, ribosome
inactivating proteins, amylase inhibitors, oxidase and pinitol. Hydoalcoholic
and petroleum ether extracts yielded alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates,
anthraquinone, flavanoids, terpenoids, saponins, steroids, proteins, fixed
oils, fats, and tannins. Qualitative analysis of methanol and ethanol leaf
extracts yielded carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids,
phytosterols, alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids, tannins, anthraquinones,
furanoids, and phenols. Menakshi Bhat (2008) Antidiabetic Properties of Azardiracta
indica and Bougainvillea spectabilis: In Vivo Studies in Murine Diabetes Model


Platelet Aggregation
inhibiting action of Flavanoids and Ethanolic exctracts.

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            The fruits of Lagenaria siceraria
(Molina) Standl. (Cucurbitaceae), a commonly used vegetable, are reported to
possess various medicinal properties. In previous studies, the fibrinolytic
potential of an ethanolic extract of fruits of Lagenaria siceraria was
investigated in comparison with kaempferol isolated from it. The aim of the
present study was to explore its mechanistic antithrombotic potential and
antiplatelet activity using a wide dose range in different in vitro and in vivo
models, and to quantify the total phenolic, flavonoid, and kaempferol contents
using a colorimetric method.

Aggregation. Rajput MS1, Balekar N2, Jain DK2. (2014)

Dietary flavonoids are known for their
antiplatelet activity resulting in cardiovascular protection, although the
specific mechanisms by which this inhibition occurs has not been fully
established. Haemost J . (2005)

            Flavonoids are a group of plant
metabolites thought to provide health benefits through cell signalling pathways
and antioxidant effects. These molecules are found in a variety of fruits and

studies have shown that flavonoid intake is inversely related to heart disease,
with these molecules inhibiting the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and
therefore reducing the risk of atherosclerosis developing. Flavonoids are also
abundant in red wine, which some have theorized is the reason why the incidence
of heart disease may be lower among the French (who have a relatively high red
wine intake) compared with other Europeans, despite a higher consumption of
foods rich in cholesterol (French paradox). Many studies have also shown that
one to two glasses of wine a day can help protect against heart disease.  Sally R. (2014) What are Flavonoids.


Extraction is the detachment of
restoratively dynamic segments of plant utilizing specific solvents through
standard methodology The reason for all extraction is to isolate the
dissolvable plant metabolites, deserting the insoluble cell marc (residue).The
introductory rough concentrates utilizing these techniques contain complex
blend of numerous plant metabolites, for example, alkaloids, glycosides,
phenolics, terpenoids and flavonoids. A portion of the at first acquired
concentrates might be prepared for use as therapeutic specialists as tinctures
and liquid concentrates yet some need additionally handling. Azwanida NN (2015) A Review on the
Extraction Methods Use in Medicinal Plants, Principle, Strength and Limitation.

Ethanol extraction is one of the effective
dissolvable extraction techniques that are utilized to separate fragrant mixes
straight from dry crude materials and debased oils or cement because of natural
dissolvable extraction, enfluerage, or articulation. The ethanol extractions
from dry substances are known as tinctures, though ethanol washes are improved
the situation cleaning oils and cements which are called absolutes. The tainted
substances and a few oils are joined with ethanol, that is less hydrophobic
than solvents used with the end goal of natural extraction, disintegrates a
large portion of the oxidized sweet-smelling segments, remaining the fats, wax
and other hydrophobic stuffs. The liquor is vanished under low-weight, living
outright. This outright can be additionally handled to evacuate any polluting
influences if still present, from the dissolvable extraction. Ethanol
extraction isn’t reasonable for extraction of aroma from crisp plant materials,
as these incorporate high amounts of water that would likewise be extricated
into the ethanol. Lala J.P., (    )
Ethanol Extraction.

Platelet aggregation

            Aggregation involves
platelet-to-platelet adhesion, and is necessary for effective hemostasis
following the initial adhesion of platelets to the site of injury. Following
adhesion, platelets are activated by a number of agonists such as adenosine
diphosphate (ADP) and collagen present at the sites of vascular injury.
Occupancy of these receptors leads to a series of downstream events that
ultimately increases the intracytoplasmic concentration of calcium ions. The
increase in platelet intracellular calcium occurs through release from
intracellular stores and calcium influx through the plasma membrane. Rumbaut RE, Thiagarajan PS,. (2010) Platelet-Vessel
Wall Interactions in Hemostasis and Thrombosis.

            platelet cohesion, mediated by
glycoprotein membrane receptors and fibrinogen, part of a sequential mechanism
leading to the initiation and formation of a thrombus or hemostatic plug.
Aggregation is used as an in vitro platelet function assay, and is induced by
adenosine diphosphate, arachidonic acid, thrombin, and collagen. Anderson,
Douglas M (2009)  Mosby’s Medical
Dictionary, 9th edition.

Aggregation is a crucial step in homeostasis. Endothelial  denudation leads rapidly to platelet adhesion,
degranulation, and recruitment of additional platelets eventually resulting in
the formation of a hemostatic plug Leung L , & Nachman R, (1986