# Report is a measurement of energy, it often

Report
A

Measuring
the specific latent heat of fusion.

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Ahmed
Raja

17/12/2017

Introduction:

This
experiment is used to hypothesize the Latent Heat of Fusion of Ice. The heat of
fusion will be measured by pouring ice in hot water and measuring temperature change.
To change water from solid to a liquid a certain amount of energy is required.
In this experiment, the amount of latent heat of fusion required will be
measured. The data collected from this experiment can be used to extract the
latent heat of fusion of ice.

Prediction:

The
energy gained by the ice is going to be equal to the energy lost by the water.

Background Information:

1.1,1.2,1.3.

We
often assume that radiation infrared specifically is heat, but what exactly is
heat. Heat is a measurement of energy, it often gets confused with temperature,
it is the measure of mean kinetic energy of an atom or molecule.

Temperature
is measured in different units like for example kelvin and Celsius, Kelvin was
made by Lord Kelvin, he developed it in 1848 in Scotland, his scales comprises
of using molecular energy to define the extremes of cold and hot. Absolute zero
or 0K corresponds the point in the scale where the molecular energy is at a
minimum. The kelvin scale is specifically used in scientific work whereas the
Celsius scale is commonly used. The Celsius scale was developed in 1742 by
Anders Celsius in Sweden. It uses the melting and boiling points of water under
normal atmospheric conditions as base.

100
°C is 373.15 K, to convert from Celsius to kelvin we add 273.15 and vice versa
for Kelvin to Celsius.

The
temperature measuring device I decided to use was a digital thermometer as it
would give me an accurate reading for my results in the experiments.

2.1

We
will observe water change its state from solid to liquid, we will use ice in
the experiment, ice will be heated which will melt it; melting is a process
that causes a substance to change forms from solid to liquid, the radiation
provided by the warm water will increase the kinetic energy of the molecules of
ice. The molecules will speed up enough that their motion will overcome the
forces of attraction so that the molecules can move past each other as a
liquid.

2.2

In
the experiment, the focus is to learn the latent heat of fusion and evaporation
and specific heat capacity. Latent heat is the amount of energy absorbed or
exhaled out by a substance when it goes from a state of matter to a different
one.

When
a substance goes to a liquid from a solid the latent heat exhaled is the latent
heat of fusion, it is the heat needed to change the mass of a substance of 1kg
from solid to liquid.

Energy(J)= Specific
Latent heat (J/kg) x mass (kg) -> formula can be rearranged to find SLH like
this:

Specific Latent Heat
(J/kg) = mass(kg)/Energy(J).

3.1

Conduction:

The
process of thermal energy or heat transferring from one place to another is
called conduction. Conduction is only possible in a material if it has free
electrons. Metals are specific elements that are said to be good conductors of
heat and electricity as they contain free electrons whereas non-metals do not.

Convection:

The
process of transfer of heat energy by liquids and gases is called convection.
It occurs when the high energy particles take place of the particles with less
energy, this is how heat is transferred from warm places to cold ones.

The
emitted by a body as its molecules lose kinetic energy in the form of heat. A
substances surface also plays a major role in deciding whether it can handle
radiation well or not. A dull and rough surface is poor at reflection radiation
while its good at absorbing and a shiny surface is completely opposite which is
good at reflecting and bad at absorbing.

Results:

Mass
of Cup (g)

Mass
of Cup and Water(g)

Mass
of Water(g)

Mass
of cup and water and ice(g)

Mass
of ice (g)

Temp
of water (D-Celsius/ Kelvin)

Temp
of water and melting ice (D-Celsius/ Kelvin)

Difference
in Temp (D-Celsius/ Kelvin)

2.53

100.1

97.57

115.9

15.8

36.4/309.55

19.6/292.75

16.8/289.95

2.53

100.1

97.57

116.3

16.2

37.7/310.85

21.9/295.05

15.8/288.95

2.53

100.1

97.57

116.8

16.7

35.7/308.85

20.1/293.25

15.6/288.75

1.
97.57/1000= 0.09757

Use Energy = Mass(kg) x Heat
Capacity(J/kg) x Change in Temperature(d-Celsius/Kelvin).

0.09757 x 4200 x 16.8 =
6884.5392 J/kg

Now I will use Energy =
mass of substance x Latent Heat of Fusion and rearrange it

Latent Heat of Fusion = Energy/
Mass

6884.5392/0.0158 =
435730.3291 J/kg

2.     97.57/1000
=0.09757

0.09757
x 4200 x 15.8= 6474.7452 J/kg

Latent heat of fusion =
energy/ mass

6474.7452
/0.0162 =399675.6296 J/kg

3.     97.57/1000
= 0.09757

0.09757
x 4200 x 15.6 = 6392.7864 J/kg

Latent
heat of fusion = energy/ mass

6392.7864/0.0167=
382801.5808 J/kg

Average:

435730.3291+399675.6296+382801.5808/3
= 406069.1798 J/kg

Converting
to grams:

406069.1798/1000
= 406.069179 J/g

Conclusion:

Based
on our hypothesis at the start it can be concluded that there is a latent heat
within ice and it has been worked out to be 406.069179 J/g compared to the
actual value which is 334 J/g there is a deviation by 21%, the cause of
deviation could be the choice of instruments as we could have used an
instrument that can measure to a higher degree of measurement or the method we
used involved significant random errors.

Evaluation:

The
method used can be held back by limitations e.g. ice melting at room
temperature, water temperature fluctuating, thermometer started at wrong
reading, mass of ice not calculated properly and ice not completely melting in
the cup, these are some of the human errors we could come across, heat loss
through the cup over time is also a major factor as we were not in a controlled
environment.

In
the experiment, there were no anomalous results and all the calculations
followed a pattern, the results could be said to be reliable as there were
repeats, and averages taken at the end. Improvements would be more repeats
taken by a different group and comparing results.

Bibliography:

1.Latent Heat of
Vapourisation and Fusion. 2018. Latent Heat of Vapourisation and Fusion.
ONLINE Available at: http://www.splung.com/content/sid/6/page/latentheat.
Accessed 21 January 2018.

2.Latent heat – Wikipedia.
2018. Latent heat – Wikipedia. ONLINE Available
at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latent_heat.
Accessed 21 January 2018

Report B

Measuring the specific heat capacity of some metals

Ahmed Raja

18/12/2017

Introduction:

The
value of the specific thermal capacity of a material tells us how much energy
is needed to change the temperature of one kilogram of the material by 1
degree.  It is an important measurement
for engineers and physicists who work with any material that changes its
temperature or is designed to retain thermal energy.

In
this activity, a value for specific thermal capacity will be calculated and
consider some of the uncertainties in the measurements that will be made during
the experiment.

Hypothesis:

Since
all metals have different densities and makeups I think that the heat capacity
will greatly vary. The makeup of iron is very different than aluminium, so the
heat capacity will be quite different. Also, a lot of metals are not completely
pure and that will also have some effect on the heat capacity

Background Information:

3.2

In
the specific heat capacity  experiment the
heat transfer changed from one to another according to each form of matter in a
sequential order, as the Bunsen burner was ignited it supplied heat in the form
of radiation to the gauze, the gauze being a metal supplied it to the beaker
through conduction this in turn heated up the beaker and radiation supplied
heat to water the molecules got heated first and then the top ones due to
convection, and the water heating up caused the metal to warm up and it
supplied heat in form of radiation and conduction.

2.2

Specific
heat capacity is the total amount of heat energy required to raise the
temperature of a substance of mass 1 kg by 1 Kelvin. The specific heat capacity
of a material is a physical property. It can also be described as the heat
required in joules to raise the temperature of mass 1 grams by 1 Kelvin.

Heat Capacity (C)= Energy
(Q)/Change in Temperature (Delta T)

Results:

Metal

Water Temp (D-Celsius/ Kelvin)

Mass of water

Mass of Metal

Metal Temp (D-Celsius/ Kelvin)

Water Temp with Metal
(D-Celsius/ Kelvin)

Difference of Water Temp
(D-Celsius/ Kelvin)

Difference of metal Temp
(D-Celsius/ Kelvin)

Group 1

Copper

23/296.15

100

64.92

100/373.15

28/301.15

5/278.15

72/345.15

Aluminium

23/296.15

100

19.225

100373.15

26/299.15

3/275.15

74/347.15

Group 2

Copper

24/297.15

100

65.036

100373.15

28/301.15

4/277.15

72/345.15

Aluminium

24/297.15

100

11.895

100373.15

27/300.15

3/275.15

73/346.15

Group 3

Iron

22.5/295.65

96.716

55.992

99/372.15

27/300.15

4.5/277.65

72/345.15

Iron

21/294.15

100

34.543

99.1/372.25

24.3/297.45

3.3/276.45

74.8/347.95

Group 1

Copper:

0.1x 4184 x 5 = 2092 J

2092/0.06492 x 72 = 447.559 J/kg

Aluminium:

0.1 x 4184 x 3 = 1255.2 J

1255.2/0.019275 x 74 = 880 J/kg

Group 2

Copper:

0.1x 4184 x 4 = 1673.6 J

1673.6/0.065036 x 72 =357.4088881 J/kg

Aluminium:

0.1x 4184 x 3 = 1255.2 J

1255.2/0.011895 x 73 = 1445.525057 J/kg

Group 3

Iron:

0.1 x 4184 x 4.5 = 1882.8 J/kg

1882.8/0.055992 x 72 = 467.031 J/kg

Iron:

0.1 x 4181 x 3.3 = 1380.72

1380.72/0.034543 x 74.8 = 534.37 J/kg

Conclusion:

As the results are compared
it can be accurately showed that all heat capacities are unique for individual
substances, it was theorized before that a substance’s atomic mass is relative
to their heat capacity; this is evident because different elements are composed
of different structures, it’s these distinctive structures that make the
element special and these structures cause them to absorb energy differently.

Evaluation:

There are different reasons
why some of the results gained for aluminium or other metals might be
inaccurate. There is a possibility of different errors e.g. human error, the
time it took to handover the aluminium, the duration of aluminium being
submerged in hot water, the water temperature might not have let it reach max
temperature. Comparing the results Group 1 had the optimal conclusion and for
repeating the experiment their set up conditions would be applied.

Bibliography:

1.     Heat capacity – Wikipedia. 2018. Heat
capacity – Wikipedia. ONLINE Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_capacity.
Accessed 21 January 2018.

2.     BBC – GCSE Bitesize: Specific heat capacity.
2018. BBC – GCSE Bitesize: Specific heat capacity.
ONLINE Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/aqa/heatingandcooling/buildingsrev3.shtml.
Accessed 21 January 2018.