Public in a professional way. The organisations include;

Public Health is helping people to stay healthy and preventing threats that could be harmful to their health. There are three main ‘domains’:Health protection – protecting the health of the public Health improvement – developing people’s healthHealthcare public health – having all health services that are equally accessible, efficient and effective. Public Health England (PHE) are an executive agency of the Department of Health. They advise and support organisations independently yet in a professional way. The organisations include; the government, the NHS and local authorities. PHE came together in order to create a single public health service where public health specialists from over 70 different organisations are combined. Their main priorities include:Preventing health threats and breakouts of infectious diseases.Early intervention and preventionImproving the gap between the health of the more economically stable households and the less economically stable households.Providing advice based on evidence, experience and expertise to not only the NHS but to the government, local government and the public as well.In order to get there the PHE will collaborate with the government to improve the health agenda. Provide support and give advice to the government on particular public involvements (e.g. sugar reduction). They will use their professional judgement and  high quality evidence to impact the development of government policies. A comprehensive range of scientific guidance and interventions will be given by PHE, so as to safeguard the public’s’ health and wellbeing from international and domestic risks including flooding and antimicrobial resistance. PHE will work with the following organisations (as well as many others) to achieve that goal;  the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Food Standards Agency, the Animal and Plant Health Agency and the Environment Agency.World Health Organisation (WHO) work within the United Nations where they lead and coordinate jurisdiction on health internationally. They help by working in multidisciplinary  teams and making making the decisions on matters crucial to health. WHO shape the research agendas (short and long term goals) as well translating and sharing valuable knowledge and stimulating the generation. Norms and standards are set by the WHO along with promoting and observing their implementations. World Health Organization express policies using ethical and evidence-based options, provide technical support, induce change and build institutional capacities that are sustainable. Finally they assess health trends and record the health situation.The Department Of Health (DH) is a ministerial department supported by various agencies and public bodies. The DH priorities for 2016 – 2017 consisted of:improving care when patients get out of hospital Ensuring the healthcare services are safe and have high quality of care and hygiene Establishing financial balance whilst also maintaining and refining performance against core standardsimproving the health and care systems organisation and productivity Helping individuals to live healthier lifestyles and preventing ill healthaiding research, innovation and growthEmpowering people and communities to come to their own conclusions in regards to their health and carebuilding and developing the workforceFor digital technology, information and transparency to improve the servicesNational Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an institution where they improve the end results for the service users of the public health and social care services as well as the NHS. In order for them to do this they produce, to health, public health and care practitioners, guidance with evidence and advice. They improve quality standards and performance metrics, that allow them to measure their behaviour, performance and activities, for those who provide and authorise health, public health and social care services. NICE supply commissioners, practitioners and managers with a range of information services. Cancer Research have a number of people working for them who help them make the most of their funds they receive in order to carry out a high standard of research in order to beat cancer sooner. They also develop policies with a strong evidence log to help government make the best decisions in relation to cancer and research. Cancer Research explores the causes, preventions and treatments for cancer with the support and funding of the public.Royal Society for Public Health (RSPH) is a charity created to not only improve the health and wellbeing of the public but to also inform policies and practice along with educating, empowering and supporting individuals and communities to lead a healthy lifestyle. The RSPH are independent from the government and work in multidisciplinary teams.It is important for the government to protect public health as there have been improvements in areas such as smoking has decreased, however there are still areas that are in need of attention and further aid. It is reported that 1 in 5 adults smoke which has been totaled up to £3,000 being spent on cigarettes annually. Nearly ? of adults and 28% of under 15s are overweight or obese. Obese related illnesses costs the NHS more than £4 billion a year. ? of adults exceed the recommended units of alcohol which costs the NHS £2.8 billion a year for alcohol related problems. Nearly ? of people have high blood pressure. Sick leave costs the economy £22 billion a year. Life expectancy is rising to an average of 79.5 for males and 83.1 years for females.The government are responsible for the public’s health but they encourage individuals to become more responsible for their own health by changing their lifestyles to become healthy.Public Health has been improving since it came about in the early 19th century. There have been similarities and differences throughout the history of public health. Vaccinations have been used to prevent diseases such as smallpox since the 19th century. In modern days vaccinations are more accessible and across all social gradients. The difference between modern day vaccinations and past vaccinations is that there have been an increase in vaccinations such as meningitis, pneumonia and HPV for cervical cancer for girls aged 12-13. Today it’s possible to get 6-in-1 vaccines.Types of diseases and health threats was another public health features that have similarities and differences. Throughout history, there are diseases that are still common such as the spanish influenza which is known today as the common cold. The government have taken measurements through health campaigns to raise awareness, such as putting handkerchiefs in disinfectant to kill germs and the “Catch it, Bin it, Kill it” catchphrase. However, infectious diseases can spread rapidly nowadays as we are more integrated. It is also much easier to pass it around the world with different modes of travel, such as aviation which wasn’t around in the early 19th century, making it harder to control. Not only are infectious diseases spreading faster but more are being discovered with 40 new diseases being identified since the last generation. For example; cholera has made a comeback, Ebola was identified and was viral. New diseases are harder to overcome and control due to our bodies becoming resistant and immune to antibiotics and other medicines (known as antimicrobial resistance). Also due to lack of knowledge and research of the disease.Patterns of ill health in regards of social class and poverty have much resemblance to modern day times. In 1948 the NHS was created eradicating poverty, but deprived areas have lower life expectancy and poorer health than those in non-deprived areas and this pattern has existed throughout history. Although this pattern still exists, overall life expectancy has increased, for example; in 1840 the average life expectancy for men was 55 years and 40 years for women but today it has increased to 79 years for men and 83 for women. This is likely due to better levels of hygiene and sanitation. The NHS is accessible to everyone regardless of social class meaning everyone can seek the medical help they require.  Comparisons can be made between past and present health campaigns such as in the 1950s a link was made between smoking and lung diseases so smoking campaigns came out. As well as vaccination campaigns and road traffic awareness such as drink driving and reducing traffic accidents. Old campaigns, however, used fear factor to get people to take vaccinations and become healthy. Today, campaigns use persuasion and information such as benefits of the action, for the reader to improve their health by making their own informed decisions. Modern campaigns include; healthy eating, mental health, active for life, sugar reduction and sexual health.BIBLIOGRAPHY:Public Health Accessed: 04/01/18Strategic Plans (Public Health) 04/01/18Public Health England Accessed: 04/01/18World Health Organisation Accessed: 04/01/18Department of Health Accessed: 04/01/18National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Accessed: 04/01/18Cancer Research Accessed: 04/01/18Royal Society for Public Health Accessed: 04/01/18The Cost of Being Unhealthy Accessed:04/01/1810 facts that sum up our nation’s health in 2017 Accessed:10/01/18How Has Life Expectancy Changed Over Time? Accessed: 20/01/18Health Inequalities in the UK: Where Are We and Why Should We Care? 11/01/18