Physico-Chemical the wastes produced in Srinagar, Jammu

Physico-Chemical Analysis, Design
of Proper Management Technique for Solid Waste Produced in Srinagar City



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of Civil Engineering

Professional University


[email protected]


of Civil Engineering

Professional University


[email protected]

Kant Shukla

of Civil Engineering

Professional University


[email protected]


Abstract— Srinagar city is facing lots of environmental problems due to
illegitimate methods of transport and disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). Concerned
Organization does away with the hazardous environment effects on human
health, thereby also improving the economic development of the state. The main objective hereby is to manage the wastes produced in
Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, point out the zone generating the maximum amount
of solid waste (SW) and
hence design the best plan of action for the waste. The seasonality check, tests for the computation of the physico-chemical
analysis of SW were conducted. Gathering of samples
only from the area generating highest/tremendous amount of SW was done and the
composition of the same waste was also calibrated.
Results reveal that MSW of generation rate of 269.06 g/capita/day, contains
moisture content of 52.42%, density of about 120.27 kg/m3,
energy content of 28489 KJ/KG and 88.11% of organic
waste. Composting would be the efficient method of disposal of SW
because of the huge organic waste content.

Composting, Design, Disposal,Management, MSW, SW,Technique, Transport

I.      Introduction

Materials losing their usefulness to the
first user are termed as solid wastes. Indiscreet disposal of such wastes
infect all the key elements of nature 1. Management practice of Srinagar
municipality is indelicate and leads to lots of problems to environment 2-3.
Open dumping is very common in most of the areas of Srinagar. Srinagar produces
large amount of waste which has pressurized the Government and the SMC
authority for efficient management of the waste 4. Management of MSW in
Srinagar city is lacking various processes of MSWM activities as it does not
include storage ad processing of MSW. The personal employees working for the
SMC department in Srinagar fail to weigh the vehicles daily; they only carry
out the estimation of the large quantities of waste from the number of trips of
the collection vehicle. The production of waste is multiplying with the clock and
the authorities lack to improve the facilities for proper management of such wastes
6. The reason for the increase in SW is unawareness, poverty, lack of
education and population increase in the city. This research aims to know about
the SWM, point out the zone of large amount of MSW, record the composition and
characteristics of MSW and finally suggest the proper disposal technique for
the same 7. The main issues for management of MSW in Srinagar are that SMC
does not have preparedness to set up proper processing and disposal facilities.
There is no short and long term plan with SMC Srinagar to handle MSW in
accordance with the MSW rules. Localities in Srinagar town in future will not
get waste lands for further dumping of wastes. MSW collected in bins and other
places is sent to the Achan dumping site, by means of different vehicles mainly
old trucks of non-tipping and tipping type, tractors having detachable trailers
plus hydraulic lifting system which can directly lift the waste or large containers
to the disposal sites. Srinagar municipality carriage cost is about more than
78 percent of the total overheads made on SWM. These vehicles are loaded with
the household waste manually and sent for the final disposal site at Achan site
for dumping purpose. Also the improper planning supervision, employing open
trucks and overloading of the vehicles causes littering of waste during
transportation. Manpower deployment is very important for the management of any
type of waste. Many researchers 8-10 in the past worked to assess waste generation
11, land-use assessments12, planning and study on different techniques to
monitor these in different parts of the country13-15.

Study of MSW in Srinagar is very important as it can help in reducing
various problems produced directly or indirectly and also proper management of
the waste can be done for the treatment of waste produced. Use of waste can be
done after processing of waste and hence reduces the load on any treatment
unit. Some of the points after taking into consideration can help in future
development. The waste products generated can either be recycled or reused for
various other purposes for example fertilizers, civil engineering applications
such as roads, bricks. Stabilization of MSW can be done through Land filling.
Proper management of solid waste can reduce health hazards. Proper management
of solid waste can help in attaining this locality as one of the zero waste production
cities. MSW can help in sustainable development. Proper management of waste can
help in increasing waste lands for disposal. Health issues to common people can
be minimized by scientific dumping and proper management technique. Adverse
effects on environment can be minimized.


II.    methodology

Selecting a Template (Heading

For determining the Composition of
MSW , Door to Door sample assemblage was carried out from the area of maximum
amount of SW (as per the data obtained ) to assess the waste generation at
household level.. Seasonal analysis of the waste was done. Characterization of
MSW includes physico- chemical composition of MSW that varies depending on
sources and types of SW. Knowledge of physical composition of SW is useful for the
selection, operation equipment and facilities, assessing the feasibility of resources,
energy recovery and the design of disposal facilities. Moisture content, waste
density, energy content and pH are of at most importance as these affect the
rate of degradation of waste. Chemical properties of SW mainly involve a change
of phase for example solid to liquid, solid to gas, etc. The principal chemical
processes used to change MSW include combustion (chemical oxidation), pyrolysis
and gasification. These are also classified as thermal processes.

Table I

S No

Per capita
daily generation of MSW

Zone name


MSW in MT/Day



Main  City




Planned colony




Un-planned colony




Settlement in
water body




Recent Extension



For Composition of MSW, samples were
taken from the areas of Zone B (Table 2) and were weighed on a weighing balance after sorting and weighing the
individual components separately. The physical
and chemical characteristics of waste were determined in the laboratory. The
per capita generation rate was determined by the following relation:

Generation rate (g/capita/day)
= Quantity of solid waste (g/day) / Population

Finally the designing of the best waste
disposal technique to minimize the effects of the waste was suggested

III.   results and discussion

According to the results the per capita
MSW generation rate is 269.76
grams/capita/day. The MSW contains 88.81% organics as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Graphical Representation of Composition of
MSW in Srinagar

Amount of
recyclable materials has been found less. The moisture content of the MSW was
recorded to be 52.42% and the density was120.27 kg/m3, Energy
content as 26289 KJ/Kg. The percentage of chemical components such as carbon,
nitrogen, sulphur and oxygen is shown with the help of a graph as shown in
Figure 2.

Figure 2: Combustible Components in MSW

IV.   design of wood compost bin at achan, srinagar

generation = 322 MT/day

Total waste generation in one year = T= 365 *

T =    117530 MT

Considering density = 0.86 MT/m3

Total volume of waste = V =

= 117530 MT/0.86 MT/m3

= 101075.8 m3

Height of the box (assumed) H=16m

Therefore Area required = 101075.8
m3/16 m

                                           = 6317.25

Length and breadth can be taken as 84m*81m so
that area of the box is 6804 m2 > 6317.25

Hence okay.
The layering of the compost should be done as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Layers of the Compost


It was found that the summer season
is composed of organic waste (93%) which is far more than spring & winter
seasons respectively, reason being the food habits of people, most of the
organic waste is being consumed in summer season. For organic waste materials composting
technique is most suitable for disposal of wastes however; sanitary landfill
provides disposal facility for long period of 10-40 years. As per the survey, the paper waste forms the major
constituent of spring time waste stream, thus, proper sorting of waste should
be encouraged to sort out the waste for recycling. The survey concluded that
the spring season is composed of most of the construction and demolition waste
as compared to the other seasons; this may be the reason that most of the
construction may contain lead or other hazardous waste. Calculations show that
the waste contains energy content of 26829 KJ/kg that is why it can be
sent for energy recovery. Also the waste has 53.4% of moisture content in it so
it should be minimized as high moisture content can reduce the efficiency of
mechanical sorting. The waste density was found to be 110.37 kg/m3which
should be minimized as it can help in reducing the waste volume up to 90% and
also helps in turning waste products into recyclables and composting products.
The carbon content in the waste came out to be 48% by mass indicating that the
waste has high heating value can be used as a fuel
and also energy be deduced from it.  The
oxygen content of waste came out to be 41% and should be removed as excess air
removes heat, slows down the rate of treatment process.
pH of the waste came out to be 5.47 NTU , it came
within the range that is between  6-8
however should be maintained properly as it helps in degradation of the waste.
Insignificant monitoring and co-ordination are the main
drawbacks of SWM staff that reduces their efficiency and performance. There is ignorance
of Public awareness and poor participation of citizens in Municipal Solid Waste
Management. In Syedpora Achan of Srinagar Municipality separation and shredding
are not being properly done and there is lack of appropriate compaction and
leveling 5. This disposal system of Municipal Solid Waste is becoming costly
for the Srinagar Municipality especially with the increase in transportation
expenditure. Wrong vehicle selection, shortage of collection vehicles,
inadequate transfer points and traffic congestion are the factors affecting
collection efficiency, resulting in low waste collection rates. Dumping at
Achan is unscientific without compaction, shredding, separation leveling and
measures to control bird menace entry of rag pickers, water and air pollution
and basic dumping site facilities are completely missing at Achan.
Transportation vehicles of wastes shall be properly covered. Waste should not
be visible to public, nor exposed to open environment. The analysis of
MSW shows that the carbon content is more indicating the waste has high heating
value and can be used as a fuel. The seasonal
analysis of MSW Srinagar, shows that the winter season is composed of maximum
proportion of organic waste as compared to other (spring & summer) seasons
respectively. This may be because the most of the organic waste is being
consumed in winter season. The moisture content should be reduced as it can
reduce the efficiency of mechanical sorting. Composting can be the best
disposal technique as most of the waste is organic waste and after treatment it
can be used by the farmers as manure. In order to achieve good results in
farming the compost should be sieved and the large un-composted parts should be
returned for composting.


     The authors wish to acknowledge the
officials of Achan site especially Mr.Sameer Hussain Zaigeer, Support Engineer
and Engineer Mohd.Yousuf Khan, JKERA and SMC Department J&K who allowed us
to visit the site any time and being helpful for providing required data.



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