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Data is a source of information where a researcher has to collect from several parts of information organization and common people. The collection of data usually provides a huge number of resources whereas researchers are maintaining it systematically for future use. This data is collected for a specific research problem and it makes a useful resource by using tools and techniques of research1. These data should be a primary data and secondary data, both the data are added each other and make it useful for users. Data is collected from the different fields by using tools and techniques of research method like an interview, questionnaire, observation, survey, focus group, etc. These tools are helpful for a researcher and make the research result meaningful.

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In the field of research, we have needed some research tools which is most important for a researcher to collect their research data. The questionnaire and observation are mainly used for the collection of data in the field of research on a specific topic. So, these tools help the researcher to modified their research and developed the research topic2.

2. Data collection:
Data collection is known as investigation or gathering of information, in relevant to the topic of the study. It is a scientific approach to the data gathering from many kinds of sources to get an appropriate result of an area of interest3. In the nature of data and mode of collection, data should be classified into primary and secondary. Primary data collection is an original collection of a specific research topic and it has been collected from the field. Secondary data is a recorded data that data is recorded by someone and is being reused by researchers. Both of data collection mainly depends upon the nature, objective and scope of investigation availability.

3. Tools for Data Collection:

For the data collection, the using of tools is very important for retrieved an accurate information and that allow the researcher to collect information in systematically for their relevance of topic or research. There are many types of research tools, we are discussed only two tools which is most important in data collection process. These are given below:

3.1. Questionnaire and 3.2. Observation

3.1. Questionnaire:

A questionnaire is a tool of research which is gathering the data from respondents. It is designed for statistical analysis of the responses, the question must be easy to understand and able to answer of them4. A researcher has to provide a question for retrieved or collect a fact answer in relevant to research. L. Cohen, L. Manion, and K. Morrison define the questionnaire as “is widely used and useful instrument for collecting survey information, providing structured, often numerical data, being able to be administered without the presence of the researcher, and often being comparatively straightforward to analyze”5. It provides a list of statements for respondents to indicating a point of view to which they had to express a level of agreement or disagreement6. The researcher will have to judge the appropriateness of using a questionnaire for data collection, what kind of questionnaire it should be for a collection of data.

3.1.1. Advantage and Disadvantage of Questionnaire:

The field of questionnaire design is provided a key element to indicating the main issues of the research project. There are some advantages and some disadvantages for questionnaire in a research. These are discussed below: Advantage of Questionnaire
It saves the money. Get information quickly Avoidance of potential interviewer bias. Get immediate information from respondents. Giving respondents a greater feeling of anonymity and encourage. Disadvantage of Questionnaire:
It takes more time to get factual information. The quality of data searching is complicated to find out the factual information through a questionnaire. The using of the long questionnaire is troubled to respondents. Respondents’ can’t understand a complicated question and unable to answer. Researcher can’t control all the respondents Illiterate peoples are difficult to understand and they can’t give a proper answer to the question. The written questionnaire does not allow an interviewer to correct misunderstandings or answer question7.

4. Observation:

An observation is a tool of data gathering directly with the human beings to observe the behaviour of respondents group and record the information. It implies that the use of eyes ear and the voice 8. According to Lindzey Gardner Observation is a “selection, provocation, recording and encoding of that set of behaviours and settings concerning organisms ‘in situ’ which are consistent with empirical aims”9. In this sense, observer focus on the natural setting which increases clarity of information and involved in recording this information. The observer has to focus on the activities of observing groups behaviour, physical action, spatial relation, temporal patterns, verbal records, etc. It determines the reality of behavior and documents the properties of the object. The source of observation is basically determined the respondent’s behaviours, gestures, tone, fashion, non-verbal expressions, facial expressions, participant’s oral comments and where the interview takes place.

5. Types of Observation

Observation is basically classified into two parts. These are discuss below:
5.1. Participant Observation and5.2 Non participant Observation

5.1. Participant Observation

Participant observation is the observer participates to study in a specific research topic and investigate the factual information through participating himself in the field. The observer can understand how the observed groups expressed their statements and emotional reaction with interviewer10. The observer can get real or factual information from them.

5.2. Non-participant Observation

Non-participant observation is the observer does not present in the activities of the group, but simply observes them from a distance11. Non-participant observation can not understand the real information and can’t clarify the factual information in the research.

2.1. Advantage and Disadvantage of Observation

For the observation, there is an advantage and disadvantage to gather the data with peoples in a specific field. Some respondents are able to understand the questions and some other respondents are unable to understand because of their literacy and researcher unable to get factual information. These are given below:

2.1.1. Advantage of Observation
Observed natural activities; Able to conduct longer period; It is inexpensive; Modified at any time; Observer can directly check the accuracy of the observed; It uses common method as physical or social;
2.1.2. Disadvantage of Observation:
Can’t control all the activities of human behaviour The measurement of behaviour is very difficult to researcher. It is difficult to maintain the respondent’s anonymity They able to study only limited issues Lack of reliability It takes more time to get information.

1 Hox, J. J., & Boeije, H. R. (2005). Data collection, primary versus secondary.

2 Jaycox, L., Hickman, L., Schultz, D., Barnes-Proby, D., Setodji, C., Kofner, A., . . . Francois, T. (2011). Data Collection Procedures. In National Evaluation of Safe Start Promising Approaches: Assessing Program Outcomes (pp. 29-36). RAND Corporation. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7249/j.ctt3fgztt.12

3 Gupta, S. (2010). Research methodology and statistical techniques. New Delhi: Deep and Deep Publications Pvt. Ltd.

4Wong, C., Aharoni, E., Aliyev, G., & Du Bois, J. (2015). Methods and Data Collection. In The Potential of Blind Collaborative Justice: Testing the Impact of Expert Blinding and Consensus Building on the Validity of Forensic Testimony (pp. 8-15). RAND Corporation. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7249/j.ctt19x3gkr.10

5 Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education 6th ed. London: Routledge

6 BABAN, S. (1998). Developing a Holistic View of Geographical Information Systems. Geography, 83(3), 257-265. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40573212

7 Hoyle, R. H., Harris, M. J., & Judd, C. M. (n.d.). Research methods in social relations. Belmont Drive, CA: Wadsworth.

8 Polkinghorne, D. E. (2005). Language and meaning: Data collection in qualitative research. Journal of counseling psychology, 52(2), 137.

9 Ahuja, R. (2001). Research methods. Jaipur: Rawat.


11 Bajpai, S. R. (1972). Methods of social survey and research. Kanpur: Kitabghar.