Operation soldiers in the Pas de Calais. In

 Operation FUSAG (General Patton’s Fake Army). A farmer had accidently uncovered the Allies brilliant work of deception, a creation of a phantom army which purpose was to divert attention from a real Allied army aiming to invade France in spring 1944. It was obveous, that even before the Canadian and British raid failed on August 19 1942, any shot to break Adolf Hitler’s Europe would be nearly impossible without a devious tactic. British intelligence agencies went to work, launching a campaign devoted to using deception as the main tactic, it was called Operation Bodyguard, created to trick the Germans into believing that an invasion might set foot in Greece, Yugoslavia, south France, through the Low Countries, , Biscay Bay coast of France or through Norway Denmark. They developed a plan called Fortitude, which would create two fake army commands, one that was placed in Scotland to threaten the Axis powers of an invasion into Norway, the other in England to threaten the Pas de Calais. The allies used double-agent spies to feed the Germans false information, If the German double-agents could convince the Germans that those armies were real, the Germans would have no choice but to keep their soldiers in the Pas de Calais. In September 1943, Van Loop was captured by the allies, the FBI then sent messages in Van Loop’s name letting the Germans know that Patton’s fake divisions were regrouping at New York, set for the British Isles. The Germans have intercepted what seems to be Allied radio chatter and photos, these are presumed real, this grew onto the belief among the Axis powers that the Allies were saving their effort for the Pas de Calais. Garbo (double-agent) had told the German informants he has been accepted into the British high command and was the ringleader of several agents in the Allied military command and the British government. “Critical intelligence was handed to the Germans when the a commander of the Afrika Corps, General Hans Cramer who was captured in May 1943 by the allies, was handed back over to the Germans.”(Murphy, B). After the intelligence from General Hans Cramer, the Axis Command was more certain now than ever, that the operation FUSAG was going to be part of the suspected invasion at the Pas de Calais. If the Germans didn’t believe that FUSAG was a major threat, then most of the German forces defending Pas de Calais would be deployed to the beaches of Normandy as well along the coast. As actual Allied forces advanced onto the beach of Normandy, they eventually broke the line and advanced further into the countryside and cities of Normandy. The eastern England ports were packed completely full with dummy landing crafts and a fair amount of actual warships to create the illusion that FUSAG was actually heading for Calais. The presence of Patton’s FUSAG would keep the Axis powers troops and artillery at the Pas de Calais and out of ongoing battle of Normandy.

Operation Bodyguard/Invasion of Normandy (Operation FUSAG was a setup mission for this operation). As Germany invaded mostly all of Europe in summer of 1943, the allies decided to take the Normandy beaches, they saw Normandy as a key sector they would have to secure to turn change the odds of the war. Although The Allies needed atleast a complete year to prepare for this attack on Normandy, the entire mission could go south if the Germans gained intel or some kind of notice on the location and/or timing, so they created an elaborate ruse, called Operation Bodyguard, to trick Germany into making faulty strategic moves in operations led by the Allies against the axis powers. To hide the details of the actual invasion points, the Allies used their best tactic; deception, to convince the Germans that an attack could  commense along their enormous Atlantic Wall. Highly important to Operation Bodyguards success were a handful of German double-agents, who’d been found and turned by British intelligence agents. In the weeks leading up to the invasion of Normandy, the Allies set their elaborate ruse on Pas de Calais to throw the Nazis off (Operation FUSAG). A German double-agent named Garcia sent faulty information about the attack on Pas de Calais, he was such a highly trusted spy to Germany that Hitler didn’t release reinforcements from Pas de Calais to Normandy until seven weeks after D-Day. As the Allies gained the upper hand they needed to achieve victory in Europe, a result that may not have been possible without the clever scheme to fool the Nazis.

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Operation Zeppelin. Zeppelin, and its co-operations Vendetta and Turpitude, concentrated on taking down German resources in Southern France and The Balkans to limit the amount of troops redeployed after the allied attacks. During early 1944, to distract any German attention from a planned Allied invasion into Southern France, the allies created a fiction threat against the German held cities Crete and Croatia through fake radio chatter. Its intended was also to round up the troops in the Mediterranean. Zeppelin’s attack plan would be that the fake British Twelfth Army led by General Patton, is preparing for a sea landing from newly liberated North Africa into The Balkans, supported by a Soviet land invasion on Albanian troops based in Italy. Double-agents relay false messages about troop movements, allied support (which are inflatable tanks, airplanes, tents, etc…) and false radio traffic are created to trick the Germans further searches were conducted for locals who knew the land and maps, this happens before any real invasion. ‘Dummy formations’ of inflatable tanks, and runways with wooden planes were built to trick enemy reconnaissance planes, they were created in Italy and Libya, Colonel Victor Jones created a fake airborne division and an armored division near Tobruk for the first stage of the operation. The first stage of Zeppelin begun on February 8th, with allies making false threats towards Greece and Crete. On March 10th the operation moved to the second stage, where the operation was delayed until May to join up with a fake Soviet invasion of Bulgaria. Stage two was communicated through a sub-plan called operation Dungloe, involving German double-agents back in England. The message passed to the Axis powers was that Allied radio messages would inform friendly leaders in Yugoslavia of the planned invasion dates and times. The third stage of Zeppelin involved a minor delay until May 21st, the Soviets had asked the allies for more time to be synchronized with their own invasion plans. This ran from April 21st until May 9th, when a major change to the plans was introduced (stage four). The British Twelfth Army and Polish forces would land in Albania, sneaking past Greece with the help of rebels within Allied Greek forces in Africa, with a key invasion set in June. A major invasion of Southern France, to be known as operation Vendetta. Vendetta, The Allies had already decided to set out an invasion and liberation of southern France, which occurred in August 1944. Vendetta was given the green light on the first week of May and the deception plan started on May 9th. Its hope was to hold German forces in Southern France for up to twenty-five days following the Normandy landings.  A naval exercise, involving sixty allied warships, was run between June 9th and 11th, which meant deploying thousands of men and vehicles from the US 91st Infantry Division. On June 11th, the Algerian borders were closed, a natural sight when an attack or invasion is imminent. The deception could not be held for long therefor The British carriers Indomitable and Victorious, had become a key part of the naval deception, they departed to the Indian Ocean. The 91st armored and infantry left to deploy in Italy. From June 24th the Allies began telling the story that because of the precence of German forces in south France (rather than moving to Normandy) the invasions been delayed. Turpitude, the final phase of Zeppelin was a land invasion of Greece by soviet and British troops, attacking from opposite ways causing a pinching effect. It was planned for the most part by A Force’s, Michael Crichton in Cairo. Deception efforts for Operation Turpitude were heavily focused in Syria, and around ports like Tripoli and Lattakia.