One ozonation, oxidation, photolysis to remove contaminants. Baran

One of the pollutants in the environment is
drug substance. More than 90% of the drugs are disposed and discharged into
urban sewage, and since the conventional treatment system is not efficient to
remove these materials, they enter the environment as water resources(Lin, Lin et al. 2009). Although medical centers, including pharmacies and pharmacies, and
unprocessed drugs, are also the main sources of drug entry into the
environment. Antibiotics account for about 15% of total drug use as one of the
major groups producing pollution in aquatic systems such as sewage treatment
plants, surface water, drinking water and underground water(Bhandari, Close et al. 2008, Gruji?,
Vasiljevi? et al. 2009). The presence of antibiotics and pharmaceuticals in water has become a
significant concern in recent years.

is a macrolide group, which is one of the most important antibiotics in medicine
that is used to treat infection in humans and animals(Bahal and Nahata 1992). Usually, these
materials are not removed in the usual primary and secondary purification
processes in the refinery and can therefore enter into water supplies(Homem and Santos 2011, Rivera-Utrilla, Sánchez-Polo
et al. 2013). The presence of these compounds in the aquatic
environment can lead to the toxicity and antibiotic resistant strains, as a
result, threaten human health and ecosystem function. Therefore, an efficient
purification system is necessary to remove these compounds(Le-Minh, Khan et al. 2010). In recent years,
chemical oxidation processes have been introduced, such as ozonation,
oxidation, photolysis to remove contaminants. Baran et al (2006) in their study
of the removal of four antibiotics sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfathiazole
and sulfacetamide by photocatalytic method showed that the produced
intermediates had less toxicity than the primary compounds(Baran, Sochacka et al. 2006). Oslo et al. (2009)
showed almost complete elimination of the antibiotics of oxytetracycline and
sulfamethasine, but the main concern with the ozonation process is the
possibility of converting compounds into breakdown-resistant intermediate
produc(O?tker Uslu and Akmehmet Balciog?lu 2009). The ultrasonic method
is a sample of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) that decomposes and degrades
organic pollutants. The
ultrasonic method incorporates unique benefits such as non-use of chemicals,
ease of use and high efficiency compared to other technologies(H Bremner, E Burgess et al. 2011). Recently, ultrasonic
use alone or combined with other materials or processes has been considered for
high efficiency. Using the ultrasonic process alone will require a long time
and high energy consumption to remove pollutants. 

Best services for writing your paper according to Trustpilot

Premium Partner
From $18.00 per page
4,8 / 5
Writers Experience
Recommended Service
From $13.90 per page
4,6 / 5
Writers Experience
From $20.00 per page
4,5 / 5
Writers Experience
* All Partners were chosen among 50+ writing services by our Customer Satisfaction Team