Neorealism, were given the same opportunities (the Myians

Neorealism,
which is often referred as “structural realism” suggests that the theory
primarily focuses on the influences of the global system structure whenever it
explains the outcomes in global politics. Kenneth
Waltz acknowledged the authority of “neo-realism” or “new
realism”, which is occasionally also known as modern “realism”
or “structural realism”, in his work published in 1979, “The
Theory of International Politics,” reconsidered the customary theories of
“realism”. Waltz clearly defined the influence of the global system
on the country’s behavior, principally taking them into account as the elements
of the global system. Especially, the study “Neo-realism and its
critics” published in 1986 under of Robert Keohane’s editorship was broadly
known among all political experts. R. Keohane and J. Nye collaborated and published
a joint study “Transnational relations and world politics” in 1972. Then
after five years, R. Keohane published his book “Power and interdependence
of world politics in a transitional state”. In these previous studies of above
mentioned prominent scholars, the increasing role of non-state parties, especially,
the international organizations, was careful taken into account. Fundamentally,
they created neoliberal direction, even though R. Keohane referred to his theory
as “institutionalism.”1Though
the realism terminology goes back to the early 20th century, the concept of
realism has always existed in international relations. The initial patterns of
realism can be seen in Thucydides, denotes J. Donnelly. At the end of the 5th
century BC during the Peloponnesian battles, Athens, in quest of joining Milos,
sent ambassadors to the island who offered to surrender to the people. That
indicates that it was necessary to thrust aside the “noble words” of
good and evil, and consider power and interests instead “You know as well as we
do that the right in the world can only be among the equal in strength, and the
strong do what they want, and the weak suffer as they should”. The Athens ambassadors
advised the people of Milos that liberty comes from strength; Milos’s fight for
liberation is not an opposition of equals, where the defeaters get glory, and
the losers get shame. The question of self-preservation being: “expediency
and safety go together, and follow the justice and honor is dangerous”.

The Athenians noted that they did not come up with these rules whereas the
Mussolians would also do exactly the same if they were given the same
opportunities (the Myians ignored the arguments of the Athenians and were
destroyed, the island was settled by the colonists from Athens). Donnelly also highlights
Machiavelli, who stressed that well-disciplined and well-structured countries
are found on “good laws and good weapons because, without good weapons there
are no good laws, I will avoid discussing laws”.

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