Munsell, [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 9 January




Munsell, O., 1871. PsychologyThe science of mind and
behaviour. 1st ed. New York: D. Appleton and Co.

Perry, F., 1977. AS Level Psychology Memory.
1st ed. London: Agency for Instructional Technology.

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Brody, R., 2008. AS Level Psychology. 1st ed.
Hove: Taylor and Francis.

Cardwell, M., 1999. A-level psychology. 1st ed.
Harlow: Longman.

McLeod. 2015. Pschology research ethics. ONLINE Available
at: Accessed 9 January 2018.

Coolican H. 2005. Research Methods and Statistics in Pschology.
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Craik and Lockhart. 1972. Levels of Processing.
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Bower Gordon. 1972. Cognition in learning and Memory.
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Baddeley Alan. 1993. The user’s guide to Memory.
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The mean number of accurately recalled words for each group
will then be put into a bar graph.

Mean Result




of Correctly recalled data



The researcher will then calculate the mean number of
recalled words for each participants. Calculated average amount of words
recalled between imagery and rote rehearsal experiment.








amount of each correctly recorded words for each participant would be recorded
in raw data table. Table like this below will be used to analyse data:





Raw data Table 1

Raw Data Table 2


Number of
correctly  recalled Imagery


Number of
correctly  recalled Rote rehearsal

Participant 1


Participant 1


Participant 2


Participant 2


Participant 3


Participant 3


Participant 4


Participant 4


Participant 5


Participant 5




After the experiment each participant will be debrief and given
support for any psychological harm cause by the research.

Under age children will be require parental consents according
to The child Regulation Act 2006 for ethical reasons to ask parent’s and child’s consent to approach children and then ask for
children’s consent for any ethical research. Participants will be given
the right to withdraw at any point during the experiment or after the

Participants will be given clear date and sign consent form
to sign to prove that they understand the research and how their result will be
used. According to Coolican in 2005 coding and ethical guidelines should be
observed when using human for a research. Participants will be informed that
names and dates of birth will remain confidential and experiment
is to prove or disprove a psychological theory and not a test of their memory.


On the mental imagery words, participant will
imagine two word-pairs interacting together. Participants will be asked to rehearse
words over and over again.  Instruction
must be understood and they will be given the chance to ask questions so that
proper methods of technique is used. All the participants will be given the
same amounts of time for the learning and distracter tasks. Also, same time
will be allowed for each word pairs using imagery or rote rehearsal. They will
be finally asked to recall as many of the word pairs can they can remember and
write their answers on the sheets which will be provided.
It was made sure that they understood the instructions before allowing them to
learn the words so that the words were not memorized using the wrong technique.

Participants will be debriefed and informed that they can view final result.

They will be informed that experiment would not take longer
than 20 minutes Participants will be asked to learn 20-word pairs and later to
recall them using a standardised method and instruction.

It will be explained to participant about the psychology
experiment with a standard instruction. Participants will be informed that this
experiment is to investigate whether memory recall is the best using imagery or
rote rehearsal.


To prove this theory of memory recall 20 volunteers will be
chosen to take part in the experiment. The experiment is design to see if Rote
rehearsal is more beneficial than imagery. This will involve two groups (Rote
Rehearsal and imagery). Rote rehearsal group are to memorise by repeating the
word several times in their mind. The imagery experiment is for participants to
look at the image and recall the image. Participants will go through both Rote
rehearsal and imagery therefore repeated measures will be best design method to
use to reduce any order of effects and save cost and time. This research will
be conducted in the laboratory and the benefit of it is to have participants in
a confined area. Participants going through the same repeated measures can
cause dizziness and boredom. To control this variable there will be break given
after each section.


The participants will be selected from people within
Bracknell residential area in Berkshire district. 20 participants will be
selected and available for the experiment. Opportunity sampling will be used
for this experiment because it is more convenient for wider population and will
be chosen based on availability. The participants will be chosen from the
community centre in Bracknell. The experiment will involve the use of eyesight
which will result in extraneous variable arising. To control this variable
participant will be asked to see the opticians to be on the same level.
Individuals eyes will be tested as this could affect their reading ability.



Sufficient light will be provided in the laboratory for
clear reading of information to control confounding variables like participants
eye sight as going through the same image could cause damage to the eye.

Participants will be put in a quite laboratory as noise can
affect recall ability hence making it an extraneous variable. Noise will be
controlled as some participants can be distracted.

All words will be written using the same font, style,
black, arial, size 16 and bold as this could which could have influence on the
result. The advantage repeated measure method is that fewer participants will
be required because the same information will be obtained from the same
participants. The disadvantage of this method is order effect as participant
will be bored repeating the same process again. However, this disadvantage will
be reduced by counter balancing and randomising participants to perform tasks
in different orders.

Participants will go through both Rote rehearsal and
Imagery therefore repeated measures was the best design to reduce any order
effects caused.

This experiment will be conducted in the Laboratory to test
the hypothesis and the benefit of it is to have participants in a confined area
in order to control the environment. According to McLeod in 2015 experiment
done in a laboratory is easy to replicate as standardised procedure will be
followed. Independent variable being the task and dependent variable being the
ability to recall, independent variable can be measured well and over shadowed
the effect on the dependent allowing for non-bias cause, objective and effect
of relationship to be established. Participants will be asked to learn 20-word
pairs and later to recall them using methods and it will be repeated for
accuracy and fairness. Memory scores will be conducted and calculated. Memory
score will be used to put the participants into groups. Researcher skill 2003
states that laboratory experiment enables researcher to use computer and other

To prove these theory 20 volunteers were chosen to take
part in the 20 words pairs. The experimental is design to see if rote rehearsal
is more beneficial than imagery. Experiment will involve two groups (Rote
rehearsal and Imagery). Rote rehearsal group will memorise word pairs by
repeating the word several times in their mind and Imagery was to look at the
image if they would recall.






Have a
background on the research


Find a
suitable place and as a laboratory


Word cards, Consent forms and recruitment forms




reading on memory recall


equipment and conduct of research checks



Atkinson and Schifrin research also found that rote
rehearsal is a better technique and more beneficial for memorising imagery.
According to these psychologist’s information stored in the short-term memory
can be lost within 30seconds unless rehearsed. If rehearsed then information
moves into the long-term memory. This supports my current research that
information is stored in the working memory and phonological loop until needed

This study supports our current research as it proves more
words were recalled using imagery than using rote rehearsal because it helps to
store, encode and retrieve information.

Bower in 1972 used mental imagery and associative learning
research to find that structure of the memory aid the ability to recall and
retrieve information. Participants try to recall word pairs (Like Dog and
Bicycle) by memorising to create visual scene linking to two items. Bower
research is more similar to this research as Bower’s research was to find out
if imagery or rote rehearsal which is the best to aid recall.

Baddeley believed that short term memory received
information from the sensory memory and a mental working space in which
information is kept without rehearsal. He called this theory as the Working
Memory Model. The working model consists of central executive which is in
charge of the flow of information into the slave systems and use it whereas the
phonological loop processes the written and spoken materials and deal with
sound and deal with sound and visual-spatial sketchpad processes visual and
spatial information. This research is going to look into their existence.

Craik and Lockhart in 1972 presented the level of
processing model as semantic, phonological and structural. Their model claimed
that rehearsal does not explained whether or not material becomes stored in the
long-term memory. Their findings were that the level of processing indicates if
information or material is stored in the long-term memory. The current research
is to investigate their existence.

Short term memory concerns information encoded and saved
for several seconds of minutes for use straight away and been prepared for
storage into the long-term memory. Long term memory is information which have
been retained for long period of time which range from minutes to years.



Hypothesis: There will be no relationship between the
words recalled by participants who will use words rehearsal compared with
participant using images to recall information. Any difference is due to chance


Hypothesis: There
will be a significant difference between the numbers of words recalled by
participants who use image, when compared to those using rehearsal. This is a
non-directional hypothesis as it does not stipulate the difference.


The aim of the study is to investigate if rote rehearsal is
more beneficial than imagery.