Morrill Land Grant Act, 1862- United States land statutes that allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges in United States during the times federal land was being sold.Copperheads and Clement L. Vallandigham- Was a extremely outspoken sect of Democrats who opposed the American Civil War they were called copperheads by the republicans and likening them to the snake. Clement Vallandigham was among those who got into trouble for having bad-talked the war.Elizabeth Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and the National Women’s Loyal League- The organization was formed on May 14, 1863 and it campaigned for the amendment to abolish slavery in the constitution.Surrender at Appomattox Courthouse- Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his Army of Northern Virginia to Union General Ulysses S. Grant essentially ending the civil war.Chapter 16:Lincoln’s 10 percent plan versus Wade-Davis Bill- Under Lincoln’s 10 percent plan, a minority of voters would have to take an oath of allegiance to the Union and accept emancipation. It excluded some southerners from taking the oath. The Wade-Davis plan, delegates could be elected to a state convention that would repeal secession and abolish slavery, after at least half the eligible voters took an oath of allegiance to the Union. Like Lincoln’s plan, the this plan did not provide for black suffrage. The Wade-Davis scheme would have delayed the readmission process almost indefinitely, unlike Lincoln’s plan.Thirteenth Amendment- Thirteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress early in 1865 and was ratified in December of that year. It prohibited all forms of slavery and involuntary servitude. Former Confederate states were required to ratify the amendment in order to gain reentry into the Union.Black codes- The “black codes” were passed to replace the slave codes. They harshly restricted freedmen’s behavior, so they were no longer slaves but not really liberated either. The black codes revealed white southern intentions and showed what “home rule” would have been like without federal interference.Civil Rights Act of 1866- The Civil Rights Act of 1866 was the first major law ever passed over a presidential veto. It made blacks U.S. citizens with the same civil rights as other citizens and also allowed federal intervention in the states to ensure black rights in court. Johnson believed that the bill would “operate in the favor of the colored and against the white race,” but Congress overrode his veto.Fourteenth Amendment- Adopted in April 1866, the fourteenth amendment granted citizenship to all persons, blacks included, that were born or naturalized in the U.S. This was done to protect blacks’ rights. No state could withhold their rights without fair treatment through the law or deny equal protection. It also stated that if a state is to deny voting rights to any of its male citizens, the state’s representation in Congress would be reduced. It also stated that representatives shall be apportioned among the states according to their population and slaves no longer added to the census as ?.Reconstruction Act of 1867- Vetoed by President Johnson but then passed over his veto by Congress, the Reconstruction Act of 1876 was a radical form of reconstruction, giving blacks the right to vote and taking away the right to vote from many ex-Confederates. The act divided the Confederate states, excluding Tennessee, into five military districts. Military commanders in the districts were appointed to oversee constitutional conventions in the districts and the creation of state constitutions. This military occupation would last until the states created new constitutions that included black suffrage, the permanent disenfranchisement of Confederate leaders, and ratification of the 14th Amendment. The act didn’t address the confiscation or redistribution of property.Tenure of Office Act- One of two laws passed in 1867 to limit presidential power, the Tenure (how long someone can hold office) of Office Act prohibited the president from removing civil officers without Senate consent. The goal was to stop President Johnson from dismissing Secretary of War Henry Stanton, a Radical ally, whose support Congress needed to enforce the Reconstruction acts.Fifteenth Amendment- Ratified in 1870, the fifteenth amendment prohibited the denial of suffrage by the states to any citizen on account of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”. This was passed because Congress knew black suffrage was one of the key factors of achieving congressional Reconstruction. Democrats originally argued that this amendment violated a state’s right to decide who is eligible to vote, but they didn’t control enough states to overrule it. This amendment spiked women’s rights advocates to speak out for their cause too.Carpetbaggers and Scalawags- Carpetbaggers was a derogatory term given to Northerners who chose to migrate south during the Reconstruction period with the desire to pursue the opportunities to gain fortunes by purchasing land from hopeless Southerners and by influencing the new black voters to acquire profitable government contracts. Scalawags was the nickname given to the Southern Republicans and former Whigs by the Democrats because the Republicans and Whigs were in favor of economic development for their state and peace between the sections. Ku Klux Klan, Enforcement Acts- The Ku Klux Klan was a white supremacist group formed after the Civil War by six former Confederate officers. Nathaniel Forrest was an early leader of the Ku Klux Klan and helped lead attacks against African Americans by burning their buildings, and flogged and murdered freedman in order to prevent them from excercising their right to vote. The Klan eventually disbanded in 1869 but was eventually reassembled by a group of supremacists in 1915. Enforcement Acts Ku Klux Klan: White-supremacist group formed by six former Confederate officers after the Civil War. Nathaniel Forrest; burned black-owned buildings and flogged and murdered freedmen to keep them from exercising their voting rights. Name is essentially Greek for “Circle of Friends”. Group eventually turned to terrorist attacks on blacks. The original Ku Klux Klan was disbanded in 1869, but was later resurrected by white supremacists in 1915. Enforcement Acts: passed to counteract Ku Klux Klan violence; made actions of individuals against the civil and political rights of blacks a federal criminal offense; were enforced selectively.Civil Rights Act of 1875- passed legislation that guaranteed access to transportation and hotels for all blacks; repealed blacks codes and removed restrictions on workers; prohibited racial discrimination in jury selection; became a watered down bill that the Supreme Court eventually struck downCredit Mobilier- Was a scandal from 1872-1873 and damaged many Gilded Age politician’s careers. Which also led to major stockholders in the Union Pacific Railroad company to form the Credit Mobilier of America.”Seward’s Ice Box”- William H. Seward signed a treaty with Russia to purchase the Alaska territory for seven million dollars, which translated to 2 cents an acre. It was heavily ridiculed in congress and called “Seward’s Folly”.”Exodus” Movement- Exodusters was the nickname given to the African Americans who were migrating along the Mississippi river to Kansas. It was also the first general migration of blacks. The movement also received lots of support from substantial figures, such as Benjamin Singleton.Rutherford B. Hayes, Samuel Tilden, and the compromise of 1877- The compromise was a informal deal that would eventually result in the Rutherford Hayes becoming the president of the United States over Samuel Tilden, but it stipulated that Hayes would have to remove the federal troops from South Carolina, Florida and Louisiana.