MINS415 flight trainer in about 1929 where




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is synonymous to miniature – a representation of something 1, and in the case of
M&S a virtual representation of real world system, involving the software
and hardware. 2 In this field,
mathematical concepts are adopted, and by relating them to the past events as
recorded in history, are being used to fore tell what’s likely to occur in the future
by simulating the copy over varying conditions to observe its behaviour. 3 Therefore the
meaning of simulation, like modelling, is the representation of a system using
another ones behaviour or characteristics, particularly in a computer program. 4


and simulation has a long and successful history full of challenging breakthroughs
that has made our lives easier to tackle. From researched text, simulation is
an application that was brought to life around the early 1940’s, a tool which
was used as a problem solving method during World War II.  Jon Von Neumann and Stanislaw Ulam, were
mathematicians who came up with the roulette technique. In this technique,
experiments are conducted in a controlled environment, in which, information
relating to the occurrence of different events were known and probabilities of
possible events were fused in a step by step analysis to vaticinate the best possible
solution. This technique is now an application used in many businesses and
industries as it became famous. 5

P Kincaid from the university of Central Florida considers pilot training as the
most significant event in M&S history, in which he describes it as an event
that started very early in history and has led to better development of technology
as it continued to the present. Pilot training was brought about by the
invention of the link flight trainer in about 1929 where the pilot basically
sat in a placed called the Blue Box where they monitored the instrument before
there was visual systems. This invention was made during the time of the great
depression, then, there was not a lot of skilled man power in piloting hence a
lot of them got damaged. Around 1935, the USA started airmail service and they
used the link flight trainer, this company got a lot of business during WWII
where the planes were used to train potential pilots. 6

developed during the war became tools to solve real life problems post-war. That’s
when analogy and digital computers were brought about. Analog computers used
electronic DC amplifiers configured as integrators and summers with a variety
of non-linear, electronic and Electro-mechanical components for multiplication,
division, function generation and more math concepts. These units were manually
interconnected so as to produce a system that obeyed the differential equations
under study. In the 1950s, these computers were introduced to many
organisations where most people there were able to figure out how to use and
apply them to everyday problems. Still in this same time period, simulation had
a setback as it took too long to produce results and also needed a lot of
skilled people at work and every so often the results were rather ambiguous. 5

the 1960s, computers were noticeably batch systems in which data and the
program were fed to the computer in a batch through punch cards, which influenced
job packets, labour reporting and job tracking. This was made possible by the
IBM 1620.General Purpose Systems Simulator (GPSS) was presented in a paper at
the fall joint computer conference by Geoffrey Gorden for the FAA to offer
weather information to general aviation. This introduced SIMSCRIPT, CSL-control
and simulation language then SIMULA, SOL- symbolic language for GPSS, then
after came a book on the Art of Simulation by Ken Tocker. From 1964-1969 a lot of
conferences were held to consider a way forward in applying simulation language
to the population which led to a big turnover during the new York conference in
December 1968, SCS became a sponsor and a 368 page conference digest was
published where a great many problems were addressed in a lot of learning domains
such as management, simulation and ecology, marketing, human behaviour and the like.
Because of more conferences all through the 1970s and 1980s, tackling issues encountered
by users and encouraging a great number of people to believe in the use of computer
simulation was a mission to ease the fear, as it was believed only experts can
use it. 5


The electronic circuits
are modelled using prototype boards known as breadboards in real life using
real components. It consumes a lot of time and at times damage to components therefore
in place of prototyping computer simulation software is used to test circuits
not physically. In that manner those simulations can be saved and also be
edited. These software for example we have P-spice in which we can build and
analyse a circuit before real components can be transferred to a breadboard, to
an advantage real components can be mounted straight away into the printed
circuit board because lots of compensation is made in the simulation software.

Aviation training also
uses simulations that are computerized before they can actually get into air
crafts. They can perform a before land checklists using the aviation training
device. The device gives the environment in which it flies to, complementing
the equations that monitors how aircraft fly and how they react to applications
the flight control and some effects of aircraft system. The trainee is given a
life experience while in a box and then they can go ahead after qualifying into
the aircrafts.


This study provides measures
of safety at every area and in all processes of the industries carried out. There
is always a room to increase the quality of a product due to comparing and
altering how a process or a system works. This also saves resources like it
hardware components and time. The study also leads to good training and performing
of certain tasks before going to the field.






Webster, “Merriam-Webster Dictionary,” 2010.


Little, Cleve Moler, “Modeling and Simulation,” MathWorks,
Online. Available:
https://www.mathworks.com/discovery/modeling-and-simulation.html. Accessed
Friday January 2018.


28 September 2011. Online. Available:
Accessed 14 January 2018.


Online. Available: http://www.dictionary.com/browse/simulation. Accessed
14 January 2018.


to Modeling and Simulation:Historical Perspective,” Online.
Available: http://www.uh.edu/~lcr3600/simulation/historical.html. Accessed
12 01 2018.


[email protected],” Online. Available: https://webcourses.ucf.edu/courses/1200753/pages/history-of-modeling-and-simulation.
Accessed 11 01 2018.