MethodsRadish Massachusetts. Each group was brought into the

MethodsRadish growthThe site of the planting of the cherry-belle radish seeds was located in the basement of my home in Quincy, Massachusetts. During the season of fall, the temperature of Quincy approximates 50°F – 60°F during the day and 30°F – 50°F during the night. As a result, the cherry-belle radishes had to be planted indoors under an ultraviolet growing light. Pots were labeled and separated into four groups: the control group, the ? cup caffeine group, the ? cup caffeine group, and the ½ cup caffeine group. The amount of radish seeds was then evenly distributed among the pots. Approximately four inches of soil were place at the bottom of each pot in order to allow the roots of the radishes to have more room to grow. Then, radish seeds would be placed on top of the four inches of soil and would be watered over slightly. About ¼ – ½ inches of soil were used to cover up the seeds and this soil was watered over. Each separated group of pots were watered with the corresponding amount of caffeine that was labeled on the side of each pot. Germination of the cherry-belle radish seeds began four to seven days after planting. The radish took a period of approximately 25 to 30 days in order to complete their growth. The harvested radishes were separated into their corresponding groups and placed in the refrigerator, covered with a damp towel, in order to keep them fresh. Microscope slide preparationThe site of microscope slide preparation was North Quincy High School in Quincy, Massachusetts. Each group was brought into the school and placed into a refrigerator when not in use. When cutting the cherry-belle radishes for samples with a razor blade, the cutting occurred at the tip of the root of the radish, where the meristem tissue is located. The tip of the root was cut and carefully sliced into small slivers. Once this action was completed, the slivers were carefully set aside and a glass slide and glass cover were obtained. A 25-milliliter beaker was filled 10 milliliters of distilled water and a pipette was obtained. The pipette was used to drop four to five drops of distilled water in the center of the glass slide. Tweezers were used in order to carefully transfer the slivers from the laboratory table onto the drops of water. A glass slide was then gently placed on top of the samples in the water and a stain, called methylene blue, was used to stain the slivers. Finally, the prepared slide was placed aside for approximately 10 seconds and was placed under a microscope for further examination.Slide examination Once the slide was placed on the platform of a light microscope, under low power (4x), the sample was located on the microscope slide. Then, using medium power (10x), one area of the sample was set into focus with the corresponding knobs on the microscope. Finally, the microscope was turned to high power (40x) in order to examine the cells of the radishes. Some microscope slides were rejected due to the large amount of stain that was absorbed by the cells. Many slides were also rejected due to the failure to find any signs of mitosis, in which was a result of the cutting of the wrong area on the root tip. When looking at visible cells, the phases of mitosis were seen occurring in the center of each plant cell. Each phase of mitosis, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, were counted and tallied inside the science fair notebook data table. Due to the large amount of cells seen under the microscope, each sample was divided into around 3 areas of cells. When necessary, a second-time counting was performed to assure accuracy. For each group in each run, approximately ten microscope slides were made. When an area of a sample is divided into two to three areas, each area would represent one set of data. However, no data was obtained because of the many important factors that impacted the successfulness of the experiment. Analysis    Due to the many obstacles that were faced during the process of experimentation in this project, no sufficient, quantitative data were obtained. As a result, no analysis was able to be established. Many factors were important to the process of this experiment, including the quality of magnification and the type of plant that was used. The magnification quality of a microscope is very important when performing researches that require the observing of cells or microscopic organisms. According to Abramowitz and Davidson, the magnifying power is an important part of the microscope due to its ability to enlarge images seen under a microscope. Magnifications can range from 1X to 100X and common magnifications include 4X, 5X, 10X, 20X, 40X, 50X, and 100X. The total magnification of a microscope is also dependent upon the length of the tube of the microscope. Certain objectives and certain eyepieces have properties that allow them to become dependent upon a certain tube length, in which will allow better magnification and resolution as well. In some cases, additional lenses are received in order to increase the magnification quality of a microscope. However, this increasing in magnification can also cause empty magnification, in which refers to the lack of resolution in an image under a microscope. The microscope that was used in this experiment may have had a major impact in the imaging of the cells of the radish. (Abramowitz & Davidson) The type of plant in which was used in this experiment also played an important role in this experiment. Radishes are not commonly used in this type of experiment. Instead, onions root cells are more commonly used to observe the phases of mitosis under a microscope due to the thin layers that can easily be obtained from it. This leads to the third problem, in which is the inability to obtain thin layers of radish samples during the preparation of microscope slides. The radish, or any other plant, is made up of layers and layers of cells. As a result, if the sample is too thick, too many layers of cells will appear under the microscope and it will become too difficult to observe any cells. In this certain experiment, although some thin layers were obtained for the preparation of the microscope slides, the nuclei and their chromosomes were too small for observation. Due to these issues, no phases of mitosis could be seen within the cells of the radish, thus causing the lack of data being obtained. ConclusionDue to the issues mentioned in the Analysis section, no sufficient data were obtained during the process of performing this experiment. Therefore, the hypothesis was neither supported nor rejected. Although no quantitative data was obtained, qualitative data could be observed both above and under the microscope. While the radishes were in the process of growth in the pots of soil, caffeine had no signs of killing the radishes. Instead, the radishes continued to grow, but, due to the cold temperature that they were exposed to, they were not able to grow into full-grown radishes. The radishes were unable to become full-grown radishes. However, there were signs of proper growth after the radishes were harvested. The taproot had changed from a green color, in which was the stem of the sproutlings, to a magenta color, in which should be the color of a full-grown radish. The roots also properly formed root hairs and extend far below the surface of the soil. When the radishes are used to prepare microscope slides, the cells of the radishes do not show signs of cell death. As shown in the pictures provided, the cells of the radishes do contain nuclei, in which were too small for chromosome observation. There are many modifications that can be used if this project were to be continued or used as reference for new experimentations. One important modification is the type of microscope that is being used. In this experiment, a light microscope was used in order to observe the phases of mitosis under a microscope. However, since the cells and their nuclei were too small to be observed, a microscope with stronger magnification could be used to create better, enlarged images, such as a compound microscope. The use of a new type of plant would also be a useful modification in future experimentations. Future experiments should include plants that are more commonly used in the observations of the phases of mitosis, such as onions or amoeba. The early planting of plants would also allow for them to be exposed to a warmer climate and allow for the planter to care for the plants more efficiently.