wide events are
held at the
end of each development phase.
They provide visibility
to system wide
issues, synchronize the management
and engineering perspectives,
and verify that
the aims of the
phase have been achieved.
iteration-focused events are conducted to review the content of an iteration in
detail and to authorize continued work.
four major milestones occur at the transition points between life-cycle phases.
They can be used in many different process models, including the conventional
waterfall model. In an iterative model, the major milestones are used to
achieve concurrence among all stakeholders on the current state of the project.
Different stakeholders have very different concerns:
schedule and budget estimates, feasibility, risk assessment, requirements
understanding, progress, product line compatibility
consistency with requirements and usage scenarios, potential for accommodating
growth, quality attributes
and systems engineers: product line compatibility, requirements changes, trade-off
analyses, completeness and consistency,
balance among risk, quality, and usability
of requirements detail
and usage scenario
descriptions, frameworks for component
selection or development,
resolution of development risk, product line compatibility,
sufficiency of the development environment
sufficiency of product and documentation artifacts, understandability, interoperability
with existing systems, sufficiency of maintenance environment
many other perspectives
by stakeholders such
as regulatory agencies, independent
verification and validation
contractors, venture capital investors, subcontractors, associate
contractors, and sales and marketing teams
objectives milestone occurs at the end of the inception phase. The goal is to
present to all stakeholders a recommendation on how to proceed with
development, including a plan, estimated cost and schedule, and expected
benefits and cost savings. A successfully completed life-cycle objectives
milestone will result in authorization from all stakeholders to proceed with
the elaboration phase.
architecture milestone occurs at the end of the elaboration phase. The primary
goal is to demonstrate an executable architecture to all stakeholders. The
baseline architecture consists of both a human-readable representation (the
architecture document) and a configuration-controlled set of software components
captured in the engineering artifacts. A successfully completed life-cycle
architecture milestone will result in authorization from the stakeholders to
proceed with the construction phase.
Operational Capability Milestone
operational capability milestone occurs late in the construction phase. The
goals are to assess the readiness of the software to begin the transition into
customer/user sites and to authorize the start of acceptance testing.
Acceptance testing can be done incrementally across multiple iterations or can
be completed entirely during the transition phase is not necessarily the
completion of the construction phase.
release milestone occurs at the end of the transition phase. The goal is to
assess the completion of the software and its transition to the support
organization, if any. The results of acceptance testing are reviewed, and all
open issues are addressed. Software quality metrics are reviewed to determine
whether quality is sufficient for transition to the support organization.
iterations, which have a one-month to six-month duration, only two minor
milestones are needed: the iteration readiness review and the iteration
Iteration Readiness Review. This
informal milestone is conducted at the start of each iteration to review the
detailed iteration plan and the evaluation criteria that have been allocated to
Iteration Assessment Review. This
informal milestone is conducted at the end of each iteration to assess the
degree to which the iteration achieved its objectives and satisfied its
evaluation criteria, to review iteration results, to review qualification test
results (if part of the iteration), to determine the amount of rework to be
done, and to review the impact of the iteration results on the plan for
The format and
content of these minor milestones tend to be highly dependent on the project
and the organizational culture. identifies the various minor milestones to be
considered when a project is being planned.