Low-involved they bought and are likely to generate


Low-involved decisions are made relatively
very quick, it starts with the need recognition and ends with the product
purchase. For high-involvement decisions, consumers must go through the
evaluation stage in which different alternatives are evaluated and compared
against each other. Some consumers may put more weigh on the product availability
and the payment method, and use them to evaluate the products. The shirt at store
M is cheaper than N, but M is located in a shopping mall while N is store
located on way to work, and they are too busy to go to the mall. This stage
will involve more decisions if they are high-involved goods. For instance, if a
consumer is buying an iPhone X, she may go to an authorized Apple Store with
the guaranteed warranty service from Apple rather than a local electrical
device store which offers a lower price.


Stage 5. Post-purchase Use and

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At this stage, consumers will know if
the product they purchased is what it was supposed to be. If it is, they
satisfy with what they bought and are likely to generate advocacy for the
brand. If it is not, the post-purchase dissonance (buyer’s remorse) is very
likely to occur. Obviously, dissonance happens if a product or service does not
perform exactly like what they are advertised. Attractive advertisements will push
consumer’s expectations go beyond what the product can really offers.

Dissonance often occurs with relatively expensive products that are only
purchased on occasion.


Consumers who suffer dissonance often
regret that they should have spent more time searching for more independent
information, or waited to get a better deal, spend that money on something else
useful. When this occurs, this is the problem for the sellers and may create
adverse effect for the brand. Consumers may end the relationship with the brand
by stopping buying anything from that brand again. Even worse, consumers may
create bad word-of-mouth by telling everyone how terrible the product was.


Firms launch many programs to avoid
buyer’s remorse. For relatively inexpensive items, companies may provide a
money back warranty, or they may inspire their salesman to compliment their
customers for their choices. For bigger items, companies try to appear as much
helpful as possible, e.g., quality guaranteed program, guideline booklets, a
toll-free hotline to call when you encounter problems or a forum with several
admins who are ready to answer all of customer’s questions.


Companies facilitate themselves in
satisfying customers by purposely lowering customer’s expectations. Service
firms such as restaurants often apply this technique. Consumers are more
satisfied if they are told that their table will be ready in 45 minutes, but
they are seat in 30 minutes. Likewise, if the waitress tells consumers that their
meal will be finished in 20 minutes, yet consumers have to wait for 10 minutes,
they will perceive that the service is quick and satisfied with it.


Stage 6. Disposal of the Product


Previously, nobody paid attention to
the disposing process of products, so long as people purchased them. Nowadays,
it is changed. The way products are disposed has become extremely vital to
people and the community. Products which are hard to self-destruct such as
electrical devices (computers and batteries) have been concerned most because
their chemicals damage the ground. Consumers and firms have become aware of
this problematic situation. Take Crystal Light, it offers consumers the
concentrated form that consumers manually add water to make it drinkable. Hence,
consumers no longer need to purchase and discard of the plastic bottle. Windex
is another example of this practice. Consumers can buy the concentrate and add
water whenever they are run out of window cleaner. Or in some supermarket such
as some supermarkets that now sell self-destruct shopping bags rather than using
and dispose of plastic bags.


Companies with sales
revenue depends on the durability of their products. In other words, if their
products are too good, consumers will rarely replace them with newer versions.

Therefore, these companies are more concerned about planned obsolescence
instead of conservation. Planned obsolescence is a policy of manufacturing
consumer goods that quickly become obsolete and need to be replaced. This can
be achieved by constant updates in design, termination of the supply of spare
parts, and/or the use of non-durable materials. This can be seen as a strategic
goal of the company to boost sales by encouraging consumers to upgrade their
products. Constant innovation in design or functions, and release of new items
keep themselves attractive in the eyes of consumers, and remind the marketplace
about their existence. Take Google, the release of Google Pixel smartphone is
the dead announcement for Google Nexus generation. The approximate length of support or the end-of-life
(EOL) dates were set for all of Nexus devices. Google released new update of
Android e.g., version 7.0 Nougat and version 8.0 Oreo while Nexus devices are
allowed to update to version 6.0 Marshmallow, this will lead to the
incompatibility with the older software versions. Another obvious example of
planned obsolescence is Microsoft Office. Formatting functions in MS 2010 are
different from that of MS forced to upgrade the present software version