LITERATURE problem in the most developing as well

LITERATURE
REVIEW

POLLUTION:
Pollution is a major environmental problem in the most developing as well as
developed countries. However, in Pakistan the pollution problems have been
rising since it got its independence. Very few people have concerns about the
negative effects of pollution on themselves as well as their environment. Hence
this problem is increasing day by day, which may lead to the destruction of our
natural environment as well as our own. In Pakistan there are three major
sources of pollution.

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In Pakistan the most
common source of air pollution is mainly vehicles whose exhaust fumes pollute
the air. As most of the people are poor they don’t have enough money to repair
or spend money on their vehicles so that they can become environmentally
friendly. More fuel is burned as most roads of Pakistan are broken and there
are a lot of traffic jams which increases the journey time. Many industries in
big cities like Lahore give out harmful pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and
carbon monoxide. The government and the authorities take little concern about
these industries. As a result of this the sky of Lahore and other cities are
covered with thick smog. This may lead to many respiratory diseases and may
also be harmful to the animals living in such places.

Water Pollution is a
major problem in Pakistan. There are many sources of water pollution in
Pakistan. Most of them are found in Lahore as it is an area of industries.
Although it is a government policy to filter the industrial water and then
release it into the sea many industries here are dumping contaminated water in
seas thereby increasing the threat of extinction of marine life as well as
polluting the water. Almost the whole of the city’s sewerage is dumped into
rivers and the sea. As a result of this Lahore and Karachi is facing many
problems in the access to clean water and most parts of the city are still
without water.

Land Pollution is also
a major problem in Pakistan. As Pakistan is not a rich country, it doesn’t have
enough money to spend on waste disposal systems. As a result, most of the home
waste and other kinds of wastage is usually thrown away on empty plots next to
the houses and is then burned which may be harmful to the people living in the
area. Only less than 5% of the waste is recycled and most of it is disposed
directly on the ground. There are only a few garbage cans along the roads so
people living far away have to dispose of their waste somewhere else. This
attracts flies which then spread diseases. Hence an increase in land pollution
may in turn slowly destroy our natural environment which is already at risk.

(Pollution Problems in Pakistan, 2008)

GLOBAL
WARMING: The term global warming means an increase
in the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is a natural process by which
the earth holds some of the energy of sunrays, and utilizes it to warm it
enough to sustain life on it. The major part of the Pakistani land is dry and
barren, mainly because of the great variability in the climatic parameters. The
major water resource of Pakistan is the melting snow from the Himalayan
glaciers, as well as the heavy monsoon rainfalls.

Although Pakistan
itself contributes very little to the overall emissions of the greenhouse
gases, yet it remains one of the most severely hit countries of the world by
the process of global warming. Global warming has affected the climate of  Pakistan in the form of melting of glaciers,
recurrent flooding, and droughts.

Pakistan’s economy has
been crippled heavily by devastating and repetitive floods during the last
decade. In the past 10 years, Pakistan has been hit by floods almost every
year. The flood of 2010 remains as one of the biggest tragedies in the world’s
history, with 20 million people affected by it. The floods resulted in
approximately 1,781 deaths, injured 2,966 people and destroyed more than 1.89
million homes.

A drought is a period
of abnormally dry weather due to lack of rainfall. Pakistan’s economy has been
punched heavily by the continuous spell of droughts for many years,
particularly in the provinces of Baluchistan and Sindh. The droughts in these
areas have reduced the river flows, resulting in drying up the irrigation
canals, leading to a severe agricultural deprivation. It has also been
responsible for causing immense losses to poultry and other animals, causing a
general deficiency of food and water for people.

Pakistan, which is an
already resource stressed country, has been crippled by the process of global
warming, as the blatant floods and droughts continue to wreck the country’s
economy. More than 10 million people have been displaced over the last two
years, the agricultural land lies barren and financial losses have been
estimated at $2 billion.

(Global warming and its impacts in Pakistan, 2017)

CLIMATE
CHANGE:
For
decades, Pakistan has struggled to manage urgent crises, ranging from
infrastructure woes to terrorism. While its policies focus on short-term conventional
threats, a potentially devastating danger lurks in the shadows: climate change.
As the impact of global warming continues to grow, the political and economic
instability it brings will threaten Pakistan’s security. The Pakistani
government must prioritize its response to climate change in order to mitigate
environmental threats and prevent future calamities.

Pakistanis have
witnessed, first hand, the devastating effects of climate change. Perhaps the
biggest security threat facing Pakistan today is the possibility of climate
change and environmental factors destabilizing Karachi, which is regarded as
the country’s economic backbone.

Pakistan runs on
an agrarian economy. From 1949 to 1950, Pakistan’s agriculture sector was
responsible for 53 percent of the total GDP. By 1980 to 1981, this number had
dropped to 31 percent; in recent years, it has fallen even further to 21.4
percent. Among other factors, experts blame the drop on increased floods and
droughts. The decreases in agricultural contributions to national GDP have
stunted the economic growth of the country.

Pakistan ranks as the
sixth-most populous country in the world, and is already unable to meet
the growing water demand. The flooding and droughts destroy billions of
dollars’ worth of crops every year, increasing the rates of inflation and
unemployment. In addition to the water shortage, the long-term damage to fields
and crops will lead to food scarcity. If this trend continues, Pakistan will be
unable to meet the demands of its population, which is growing by nearly 2
percent each year.

It is imperative that
Pakistan makes climate change a priority. Failure to do so would jeopardize the
country’s national security. Currently, Pakistan has allocated 58.8
million rupees to combat climate change, a commitment that must be
increased. Since Pakistan is not financially secure enough to afford climate
change implementation programs on its own, it needs assistance from foreign
entities as well as climate change experts who can design comprehensive
programs, bearing in mind the government’s limitations.

(Pakistan’s Big Threat Isn’t Terrorism—It’s Climate Change, 2016)

CASUAL
DINING RESTAURANT: Casual-dining restaurants have a
relaxed, casual ambiance with a lot of seating. They offer full table service
and may also have a wine menu or full bar service. The menu is higher-priced
than fast-food restaurants.

(An in-depth overview of the US restaurant industry, 2014)

Haveli restaurant is
considered as one of the casual dining restaurants of the country.  The Haveli restaurant
is one of the few restaurants in Lahore and the only one in the entire Food
Street, which is certified to comply with hygiene standards of the World Health
Organization. Using
only the freshest and choicest ingredients, their specialties encompass
different styles of gourmet live cooking. These include open face Tawa and
takka-tak preparations, charcoal grilled B-B-Q appetizers and entrées, clay pot
or Handi delicacies, traditional Karahi favorites of Lahore and Peshawar,
vegetarian section and a large variety of our Tandoori nans and breads.

There are two
additional levels of seating arrangements; the upstairs roof top or ‘Kotha’ and
finally the exclusive ‘mumti’ which boasts a 360 degree view of the historic
monuments and the walled city.

Whether it’s a romantic
candle light dinner for two, or a splendid banquet for two hundred, the Haveli
Restaurant is the logical choice for a fun filled evening of great food,
excellent service, and a memorable experience.

(Haveli about us, 2017)

Another casual dining
restaurant in Pakistan is the Bon Vivant Palais. It is a place for exquisite
food from around the world. It is the first food outlet of its kind in Pakistan
which offers Continental, Chinese and Desi restaurants under one roof. Bon
Vivant Palais gives a stunning view inside and out.

One of its eateries includes:

Rawayaat:
Rawayaat is one of the many chic restaurants of the Bon Vivant Palais which
manifests colors of local culture and offers Desi cuisines with supreme taste
and quality. They use the best quality ingredients and authentic cooking style
to prepare the delicious food that leaves you craves for more.

(Bon Vivant Palais, 2017)

FINE-DINING
RESTAURANT: Fine dining restaurants, also referred
to as white tablecloth restaurants, are typically higher end and fancier
restaurants. As opposed to casual eateries, cafes or family-style restaurants,
fine dining caters to an upscale clientele and provides the highest quality of
food. A fine dining restaurant has a formal atmosphere, is almost always a sit
down restaurant, and has a fancier menu than most restaurants. Fine dining
restaurants offer wine lists, and sometimes sommeliers, to help you with your
food and wine pairing. They also have dress codes in most cases.

The first thing you
will notice about a fine dining restaurant is usually the decor and atmosphere.
Fine dining restaurants are not places to be loud and are not places to go in ripped
jeans or tee shirts. Collared shirts are preferred for men, and some
restaurants also require a sport jacket or tie in order to be fully dressed.
For ladies, skirts or dresses or other nice clothing is recommended.

(What does Fine Dining Mean?, 2015)

Spice Bazaar considered
as one of the fine-dining restaurant in the country, a Pakistani dining
experience by the group of Yum and English Tea House. Designed by the renowned
hospitality consultant, Masood Ali Khan, Spice Bazaar is a celebration of
Pakistani cuisine, comfortable ambiance, five star services and much
needed, diversified, quality, Pakistani food.

At spice bazaar, the
rich Pakistani culture and heritage is highlighted in their diversifying
flavors from across the country. Spice Bazaar offers Sunday Brunch, Lunch,
Super Tea and Dinner. Their Empress and Sultan Boardrooms now provide the
perfect space for corporate lunch meetings or a nice relaxing dinner. Their
dining areas and courtyard offers an experience that surpasses every
celebratory expectation.  

(About
Us,Spice bazar)

 

FAMILY-DINING
RESTAURANT: Salt’n pepper restaurants at mall
liberty market Lahore are considered to be the first family style restaurants
in the food industry of Pakistan
Salt’n pepper are Pakistan’s most recognized and distinguished hospitality
brand with a history of market innovation and excellence in restaurant chain
operation. The Salt’n pepper restaurants are regarded and respected as the
number one restaurant entity in Pakistan by local and foreign observers.
The Salt’n pepper restaurants are an example of gracious dining, outstanding
service, extraordinary classic and contemporary cuisine. The restaurants have
become the ultimate dining destination in Lahore, Karachi and London.

(saltnpepper About us, 2018)

In early 80’s Lahore
broast was first time launched by Mr. Iqbal and his brothers at Jeddah ‘ Saudi
Arabia. But due to some unfavorable global economic circumstances, this
restaurant business was shifted back to Lahore, Pakistan by establishing its
first brands in 1983 at ICHRA market Lahore. Lahore broast offers delicious, tasty
and distinctive products.
In addition to offering high quality products Lahore broast is also expanding
its product line day by day.
The Lahore broast main motto is “everyday fresh chicken”. Concept emphasized on
daily fresh quality of chicken processed in Lahore broast restaurants.

(LahoreBroast Home, 2018)