Land possess and depend on small plots. Such

Land
tenure and forests property rights are one of global today’s most pressing
development issues. More than two billion people worldwide land resources
access is under customary tenures systems (USAID, 2013). Although many
countries have completely restructured their legal and regulatory frameworks
related to land and tried to harmonize modern statutory law with the customary
law (UN-Habitat, 2017). Insecure land tenure and
property rights still exist in many countries around the world, especially in
developing countries. The variation in land tenure settings considerably,
reflecting the past and recent history of the countries, the different
approaches selected by governments to improve land resources management, but
also the growing voices of local stakeholders demanding recognition of their
rights and a role in decision making. A diversification of forest tenure
arrangements is taking place in various countries around the world as part of
revised forest policies, laws and traditional land allocation systems. (FAO,
2014).

In sub-Saharan Africa, most land has no registration of who owns it or
has rights to use it (Toulmin, 2009). In most African
countries, politicians and powerful groups are often dispossessed of the land
on which they farm or, in urban areas, on which they have developed their home,
while low classes population possess and depend on small plots. Such
insecure land tenure in rural areas lead to land use conflicts and
environmental degradation (e.g., deforestation, degradation of biodiversity,
and desertification).

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Rwanda’s land resources, patterns of land occupation and existing land
tenure systems are characterised by high population growth, severe land
pressure and an increasing number of small fragmented land plots combined with
limited non-agricultural livelihood options have been severe conflicts that
resulted in the 1994 genocide which have also weakened traditional land
allocation systems. In the aftermath of the genocide, there was a lack of
clarity over legal status and rights to land, with landowners returning to
Rwanda to find their land occupied by others (Gillingham et al.,2014)). The government has engaged in a land sharing and
reallocation programme to settle returning refugees and landless people. In 2004, the Government of Rwanda adopted the first-ever
National land policy and land Law in 2005; to operationalize this law in 2008, the GoR initiated the land tenure regularization
program (LTRP) which legalised land ownership by providing individuals
with land titles. About 10.3 million parcels encompassing most of the private
land in Rwanda have been demarcated in 2013, the LTRP has become a model for other African countries (Ayalew et al., 2012).

1.1.Objectives
and Scope of the Paper

The main objective is to
analyse the land tenure systems and forests in Rwanda. Specifically, the
objectives are to:

•      
Identify land administration
and governance

•      
Identify land and forests
ownership categories

•      
Assess land
tenure regularization program process; and analyses its achievement and
challenges.