John are intended to guarantee proximity. A child

John Bowlby is also another major theorist in child
development and more so when it comes to social development in children. He
prosed one of the earliest theoretical models of social development in
children. Bowlby was of the belief that the early relationships that children
begin with their caregivers play a major role in their growth and development
and it goes ahead to have an impact on their social relationships throughout
their lives. Bowlby’s theory proposes that children are born having an innate urge
and need to make attachments. These kinds of attachments are crucial since they
help in survival by making sure that the child receives the attention and
protection he/she deserves. Moreover, such attachments lead to a clear and
acceptable behavioral and motivational series in children. In short, both the
caregiver and the child engage in behavioral patterns that are intended to
guarantee proximity. A child tends to remain connected and close to his/her
caregiver who in return provides a safe haven and a secure place for the child
to explore the world (Pinter, 2011).

Like most theories, Bowlby’s theory has also received
appreciation as well criticisms with several of researchers expanding upon his
initial work and suggesting that there exist a variety of different attachments
styles. A child who receives consistent care and support has a higher chance of
developing a secure attachment style as compared to one who receives less
reliable care. Such a child may end up developing an ambivalent and disorganized
attachment style.

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Vygotsky’s
sociocultural theory

Lev Vygotsky who is also a theorist and a psychologist
as well came up with a fundamental learning theory which has risen to become
incredibly influential and particularly in the education genre. Through his
theory, Vygotsky agrees with Piaget that children learn actively and via
practical experiences. His socio-cultural theoretical model of child
development proposes that parents, caregivers, peers, and the society at large
are accountable for the development of higher-order functions. Vygotsky
believed that learning should be considered as a naturally social process.
Through interactions with other people, learning becomes part and parcel of a
person’s understanding of the world. The sociocultural theory also introduced
the idea of the zone of proximal growth which is the difference between what
someone can do alone and what they can do with an extra hand for help.
Individuals can consistently and progressively learn and improve/increase their
skills and scope of understanding through the assistance of people who have
more knowledge than them (Vygotsky, 1997).

Freud’s
Psychosexual Development Theory

The last but not least child development theory is the
psychosexual development theoretical model which is also a psychoanalytic
theory originating from the work of Sigmund Freud. Freud had the opportunity to
interrelate with a variety of patients suffering from mental disorders, and
it’s from such that he believed that experienced in the childhood years as well
as unconscious desires have a crucial impact on the overall behavior throughout
one’s life. He suggests that the conflicts that happen during each of the
development stages have a lifetime impact on the personality and behavior of an
individual. Freud proposed one of the major grand theories of child
development. His psychosexual theory suggests that child development takes
place in a sequence of phases with each one of them focused on a different
pleasure area of the body (Berk & Winsler, 1995). During each phase, the child experiences conflict
which plays an important role in the course of development. Freud believed that
failing to progress through the different stages would lead to affixation at
that particular time of the development and a such this could have a great
impact on the behavior throughout their lifetime and more so during their adult
years. This theory seeks to give insight into what happens as a child completes
each of the development phases. It also enables us to understand what would happen
in the case that a child does not develop as expected and does poorly at a
certain point in the development process.

Successful completion of each of the development
stages results in the growth and development of a healthy personality. It is a
such important to resolve the emerging conflicts which are experienced at every
stage so as reduce the probability of the fixations which can have an adverse
impact on behavior. Despite the fact that most of the child development
theories propose that personality changes and grow over the entire lifespan,
Sigmund was of the belief that the early childhood experiences in life play a
bigger role in shaping development. According to him, by the time most children
are reaching five years, they usually have already set in stone their
personality.

As detailed in the child development theories
discussed above, it is evident that some of the renowned psychology scholars
and theorist have come up with theories in a bid to assist in exploring and
explaining the different aspects related to growth and development in children.
While not all the theories have become fully accepted in the current world, each
one of them has had a crucial influence on how we understand child development.
Currently, modern psychologists usually draw on several theories and
perspectives to understand how children grow, learn, behave and think. These
theoretical models represent only a small portion of the various ways of
thinking and understanding growth and development in children. In the real
sense, to fully understand and comprehend how a child changes and grows over
the duration of childhood necessitates have an in-depth analysis of the many
factors that have an impact on the physical and psychological growth. The
surrounding environment, genes as well as the interaction between them
determines how children develop both physically and mentally.