IntroductionThis report will discuss the effects of food and road incidents and what improvements can be introduced to reduce these problems and improve childhood health. Research evidence is also available to support the two main social determinants and my personal observation of the walk which will help link both the two determinants of health mentioned in this report.Guided walk through East London descriptionThe impact of fast foodObesity levels have become much higher in children who live in poorer neighbourhoods due to the number of takeaway shops present in the areas, ( Public Health England 2013). This has become a major concern for The Public Health England (2013) analysis conducted showing the amount of fast food outlets in deprived areas are increasing on average. Going to local takeaway shops to buy food is something that a lot of us enjoy, due to how easy and convenient it is. However, buying and eating takeaways has now become a norm within society rather than being an occasional treat. The amount of take away food being consumed by a fifth of adults and children has risen to 75% in 2014 compared to 68% in 2010 (PHE 2013).A report written by Pietrangelo. A et al (2017) concluded that eating food containing a high calorie and low fibre diet more than once a week puts individuals at risk of getting heart, kidney and liver disease. People may also suffer from lethargy, hunger and more severely, develop cancer.(find a reference for this). The over accessibility of junk food puts children more at risk, as they are usually located in close proximity to schools, which causes children to purchase junk food with ease. This was proven during the walk conducted on our way to Poplar. We stopped to talk to a group of teenagers who had just left the gym to ask about the area and what could be improved. One of things they all mentioned was the amount of fast food restaurant near the gym and the school environment. They wished healthier cheaper food, was more available, instead of having to walk for fifteen minutes to a nearby Tesco in order to buy a healthy meal.Implementation placed on the reduction of fast foodThe NHS in 2016 introduced a sugar tax, starting at 20%, by removing price promotions, adverts and checkout displays in hospital to begin with alongside other health centres. The trusts in the NHS will begin to adopt healthier lifestyles with their own individual food choices, with their patient food choices and available vending machine food. The ban has was introduced by Chief executive Simon Stevens in 2016, who works for the NHS, stated that “staff need to practice what they preach”, meaning that staff in the NHS need to look after themselves in eating when telling patients, they need to cut down on their food, (Meikle, J, 2016).The Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (2015) and the Department of Health (2013) will be introducing the soft drinks industry levy for children . This developed as a product of the increase of child obesity in the UK as children were seen to be consuming too much calories, specifically sugars within soft drinks, leading to children of young ages developing tooth decay and type 2 diabetes (REFERENCE). This act will be introduced to companies who increased their sugar levels within their products, a warning would then be provided, which allows companies two years to reduce their sugar contents if not, they will be fined, (GOV.UK, 2017). The Department for Education (2017) has also agreed to increase physical education (PE) within schools by investing £10 million, to aid schools in providing the correct PE facilities (GOV.UK, 2016).The Public Sector in England (2015) and the Local Government Association (YEAR?) will be working with local authorities to cut down takeaway shops near schools to reduce childhood obesity. ( WHAT ARE THEY DOING TO DO THIS WRITE IT HERE) The impact regarding overcrowding:The impact of living in an overcrowded accommodation with facilities being shared, will place children at a risk of catching infectious diseases. The Campaign to End Child Poverty (2003) has stated that children who have been raised in Tower Hamlets are three times more likely to be living in poverty compared to those that live in Richmond-upon-Thames, (Peyer. D Robin 2014). This can also be linked to poor housing conditions and its impact on children’s health. Poor housing conditions and poverty has been found to have a profound impact on a child’s health and development. According to the Officer Deputy Prime Minister (2004), cold temperatures causes respiratory infections, houses in damp conditions attract bacteria and allergens are made from mould which can lead to respiratory problems. This means that children who live in these conditions are prone to asthma symptoms as well as other respiratory conditions compared to children who live in dry conditions, (ODPM 2004).Furthermore, according to the Deputy Prime Minister (2004), studies have shown a link to tuberculosis as it can lead to severe health problems such as lungs, kidneys and cause death. This means that kids are likely to get TB due to overcrowding and the conditions they live in as well as contracting viral infections, placing them at risk of threatening diseases like meningitis, (Harker, L. 2006).Poverty in Tower Hamlets has currently been appalling even though the borough has a higher proportion of income earners, but Tower Hamlet’s children are living in poverty (Majid, A et al, 20017). Studies from the End of Child Poverty Campaign has revealed that there is a 44% rise in poverty within Tower Hamlets compared to nationally being 25%. This means that children are living in households income that is less than 60% (Majid, A et al, 2017).Implementation placed on the reduction of overcrowding:It is well known that the problem with overcrowding housing, especially in deprived areas, will need to be tackled as it is a problem Britain is currently facing. According to Housing minister Gavin Barwell’s announcement in 2016, minimal room sizes will be applied to homes that are being shared to help clamp down landlords who cram tenants in unsafe and crowded homes. This is to try and improve housing conditions for many people (DCLG, 2016). In 2011, the government provided local authorities with £12 million to carry out inspections in tenant homes to inspect housing conditions and in 2016 has found more than 2,800 had rogue landlords providing inadequate homes to vulnerable tenants. The government will continue with this act and prosecute landlords so that more housing conditions can be safe for tenants and there children (DCLG, 2016).Tower Hamlets have taken into action to reduce overcrowding for families and is doing this by taking the building and buy-back approach to reduce overcrowding. The council is aware that due to poor housing conditions and poverty, it is looking to work with landlords so that higher standards home are provided for tenants, according to the local Government Association (2016).