In learning style has a significant influence

In this section, we will come out with some conclusions that we
inferred from the results and findings. We will be explaining also our suggestions
that we can use in assisting EFL and ESL learner.

5.2       CONCLUSIONS

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As
the conclusions, researchers found out that it is vital for a language learner
to identify their own learning styles and learning strategies in order for them
to master ESL and EFL. These learners are using different kinds of
language learning strategies, or specific actions and behaviors to help them
learn. Their strategies differ greatly, at least in part because their general
learning styles (overall approaches to learning and the environment) are so
varied. Recent research (Ehrman & Oxford, 1988, 1989; Oxford & Ehrman,
1988) suggests that learning style has a significant influence on students’
choice of learning strategies, and that both styles and strategies affect
learning outcomes.

English learning in this global society will apparently be a
lifetime process for students, certainly continuing after their graduation.
Thus, EFL at the high school level will play the much more important role of
having students build the foundations of education for life, rather than of
only providing a means of passing examinations or fulfilling a requirement. In
open seas, students have to adjust to the situations from reliance on others to
reliance on self (Yoshida, 2001/2002). In this context, the students have to be
autonomous learners. Learning strategies are the tools for them to be
self-reliant. In open seas, learning can sometimes be lonely, severe, and
difficult. Tolerance of ambiguity, controlling their emotions, planning or
evaluating their learning – these strategies will be much more important in the
21st Century. Hopefully, the tools will work to broaden their ability to have a
good command of English, which is the dream of most Japanese.

5.3) RECOMMENDATIONS

After finished all the discussion, findings and results,
researchers come out with some recommendation to language teachers on how to accommodate ESL and EFL students in their classrooms and
some recommendations that all teachers can utilize to facilitate their ESL
and EFL students in language learning.

First, speak clearly and in standard English. Teachers need to model academic English with clear
pronunciation and diction. Teachers should also refrain from using slang because some ESL/EFL learner
might not familiar to slang. This will makes them hard to understand of what we
are delivering to them. Second, assign a “buddy” to your ESL student. These buddies should be strong students who will help
the ELL become inducted into the class and into the school.
Initially, seat the ESL student next to the buddy so that the buddy
can guide the student and answer questions at any point in the class in as
unobtrusive a manner as possible. For example, we can see that this
recommendation is effective as proven by interviewee one name Muhammad Syafiq.
During the interview, he said that he prefer Face-to-Face learning as he always
did with his friend. This mentoring system might contribute a lot to ESL and
EFL learners.

            In native language development, the
normal progression of skills is first to say something and then to be able to
read and write what one can say. Therefore, abundant oral practice needs to be
made available to students in order to afford them the first steps of creating
with language. The converse of this phenomenon
is also true if students are not able to produce an idea orally, they
will probably not be able to write it. A corollary to this axiom is that
students will usually write at the level at which they speak. Although there
will be some students who will read and write at a higher level than their
speaking ability, this tends not to be the norm. This notion becomes clearer
when we think of the ability of our native-English-speaking students. It is
usually true that our best writers and readers are those who have the highest
level of spoken language.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LITERATURE REVIEW

There has been an
increasing interest toward language learning and language learners since 1970s
with the emergence of cognitive revolution, and since then great attention has
been paid to language learning strategies. The pattern shifted from behaviorism
to cognitive science in psychology and education. Research led to efforts to
explain the cognitive processes in all aspects of learning, including language
learning. Initial studies of language learning focused on describing externally
observable behaviors of language learners, followed by attempts to label
strategic behaviors and ultimately to categorize those strategic behaviors and
link them to language proficiency.

                                                                                                                

According to the article “Language Learning Strategies Among EFL/ESL
Learners” written by 
Pezhman Zare, he discussed on the traits of a good language learner and
exposed the relationship between learning strategies and language learning
achievement. According to him, a good language learner must search their own
and carry responsibility for their own learning. Then, the learner itself has
to organize information about language and they must try to feel the
language by experimenting its grammar and words since this will create
opportunities for practice in using the language inside and outside the
classroom. He added also that a language learner must learn to live with
uncertainty by not getting confused and by continuing to talk or listen without
understanding every word and use memory strategies to bring back what has been
learned. They are welcome to use linguistic knowledge, including knowledge of
the first language, in learning a second language.

 

In
studies of good language learners, researchers mentioned lots of various
behaviors that they referred to globally as strategies; some managed to
describe strategies more specifically. Learning strategies have been described as
“any sets of operations, steps, plans, routines used by the learner to
facilitate the obtaining, storage, retrieval, and use of information” (Wenden
and Rubin, 1987) Furthermore, it was stated that “learning strategies are
processes which are consciously selected by learners and which may result in
actions taken to enhance the learning or use of a second or foreign language
through the storage, retention, recall, and application of information about
that language” (Cohen, 1990)

 

Language
learning strategies are divided into three main categories which are
metacognitive strategies, cognitive strategies, and socioaffective strategies (O’Malley,
1985). Metacognitive is an expression to indicate an executive function,
strategies which involve planning for learning, thinking about the learning
process as it is taking place, observing of one’s production or comprehension,
correcting your own mistakes, and evaluating learning after an activity is
completed. (O’Malley, 1985) Then, according to (Brown, 2007) “Cognitive
strategies are more limited to specific learning tasks and they involve more
direct manipulation of the learning material itself”. For example, repetition,
resourcing, translation, grouping, note taking, deduction, recombination,
imagery, auditory representation, key word, contextualization, elaboration,
transfer, and inferencing. Next, Socioaffective strategies have close
relationship with social-mediating activity and interacting with others. The
main socioaffective strategies include cooperation and question for
clarification (Brown, 2007).