In this citation Fisher
and Ury basically described four principles required to do an effective
negotiation and they have also talked about three common obstacles to
negotiation and in what ways the parties can master these obstacles. The
writers say that a good agreement is one which is efficient and informed and
which improves the parties’ relationship. The primary aim is to try to improve
relationships among parties is by creating the method to reach good agreements.
The author has coined a word called positional bargaining where each party
opens with their position on an issue. The parties after that bargain from
their different opening positions to reach on a single position. .This is an
efficient means of reaching agreements and these agreements tends to neglect
the parties interest, encourages dogged determination and thereby harm the
parties relationship. Fisher and Ury have stated four principles of negotiation
1) Separate the People
The author has
identified three sorts of problem in this case which are as follows:
a) Identifying the
differences on perception among the parties as each party needs to look at each
b) Emotions are the
second source of problem as people often react with anger or fear when they
feel their interest is getting threatened.
c) Communication is the
third important source of problem as the parties may not be listening to each
other but may in process of planning their own responses. Active listening is
required in these cases.
2) Focus on Interest
rather than positions
Parties which are good
should focus on interest rather than focusing on position of parties. The
process of defining the problem in terms of positions will mean that at least
one party will lose the dispute.
3) Generate on variety
of options before settling on agreement
The parties may define
the problem in win lose situation where one party will win and other will lose.
There is a need to come up with creative options and parties should come
together in an informal atmosphere and brainstorm for all the possible
solutions to problem.
4) Using the Objective
This means when the
interest are directly opposed the parties should use objective criteria to
resolve their differences and there can be three scenarios to this.
a) When the other party
is more powerful
The weaker party should
concentrate on assessing the est alternative to negotiated agreement (BATNA).
b) When the other party
will not use principled negotiation
In this case parties who
are stuck in positional bargaining one side may continue on principled approach
or principled party may use “negotiation
jujitsu” or using a one text approach could be a solution to this obstacle
c) When the other party
uses dirty tricks
Parties may engage in
deliberate deception or there could be psychological warfare or there could be
positional pressure tactics.