In (liver and kidney) tissue to fat and

 In recent
years, there have been concerns about the presence of steroid hormones in
edible matrices, covering a wide range of physical types of matrix, from muscle
and organ (liver and kidney) tissue to fat and milk. Consequently, there was a
need for continuous development of improved multi-residue, multimatrix and
multi-technique analytical methods. First of all, these methods must be
sensitive enough to cover not only the legislative limits but also allow the
determination of banned, forbidden or unknown compounds following misuse or
unintentional use that may lead to residues in matrices of animal origin.
Secondly, the determination of residues in matrices of animal origin requires
the development of extraction and clean-up methods prior to detection. This is
due to the matrix complexity and the low concentrations (ng up to g kg?1) that
should be detected. Urine, manure and hair are mostly used to monitor the
illegal use of steroid hormones because they are available before slaughtering.
After slaughtering, liver, kidney, fat or muscle tissues are collected.
Consumable parts of the animal like liver, kidney and muscle tissue are the
target tissues for residue analysis. Moreover, steroid hormones are lipophilic
compounds and as such they may accumulate in fat; progestagens are known for
this particular property. Commonly, kidney fat is taken at slaughterhouse level
because it is the easiest matrix to take and thereby the lowest detrimental for
the carcass. Based on the available literature, with emphasis on multiresidue
methods for steroids in meat, a number of analytical methods have been developed
and are described. Fewer methods are described for kidney fat, kidney, liver
and milk. DeBrabander et al. has extensively reviewed the possibilities of mass
spectrometry in the determination of residues of banned substances (amongst
other things EGAs and cortisosteroids) in matrices of meat-producing animals